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Table 6 Survival analyses showing time to primary endpoints outcome (all-cause mortality) and secondary endpoints (respiratory specific mortality and respiratory hospitalisation) in a time-dependent multivariate analyses

From: The effect of changes to GOLD severity stage on long term morbidity and mortality in COPD

GOLD Category Change Primary outcome Secondary outcome
Multivariate time dependent analyses Respiratory specific mortality Respiratory hospitalisation
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
A → A 1.00 ref   1.00 ref   1.00 ref  
A → BC 1.66 (1.34–2.07) <.0001 2.28 (1.50–3.46) 0.0001 1.62 (1.31–2.01) <.0001
A → D 2.08 (1.30–3.32) 0.0022 4.68 (2.37–9.23) <.0001 3.13 (2.13–4.60) <.0001
BC → A 1.58 (1.23–2.02) 0.0003 2.27 (1.43–3.60) 0.0005 1.44 (1.13–1.83) 0.0034
BC → BC 1.98 (1.67–2.35) <.0001 3.27 (2.34–4.55) <.0001 2.32 (1.97–2.73) <.0001
BC → D 3.21 (2.61–3.94) <.0001 7.51 (5.30–10.66) <.0001 4.81 (3.98–5.82) <.0001
D → A 1.31 (0.61–2.78) 0.4890 0.79 (0.11–5.70) 0.8112 1.01 (0.42–2.46) 0.9755
D → BC 2.96 (2.32–3.78) <.0001 7.38 (4.99–10.93) <.0001 4.12 (3.29–5.17) <.0001
D → D 4.31 (3.64–5.10) <.0001 12.86 (9.47–17.46) <.0001 5.87 (4.97–6.92) <.0001
  1. In a model that also adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, BMI, use of COPD related medication at baseline, history of cardiovascular events, history of cardiovascular protecting therapies, renal failure, Charlson comorbidity index and socioeconomic status