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Table 3 The maximum effect estimates of air pollutants using single-pollutant models and two-pollutant models

From: The impact of outdoor air pollutants on outpatient visits for respiratory diseases during 2012–2016 in Jinan, China

Lag day Single-pollutant model Two-pollutant model Two-pollutant model Two-pollutant model Two-pollutant model Two-pollutant model
PM2.5 PM2.5 PM2.5+ SO2 PM2.5 + NO2 PM2.5 + CO PM2.5 + O3  
Lag 3 0.168(0.072, 0.265)* 0.217(0.105,0.328)* 0.094(−0.042,0.231) 0.183(0.001,0.366)* 0.168(0.072,0.265)*  
Lag05 0.441(0.251, 0.632) * 0.566(0.343,0.770)* 0.235(−0.024,0.495) 0.481(0.127,0.836)* 0.423(0.233,0.613)*  
PM10 PM10 PM10 + SO2 PM10+ NO2 PM10 + CO PM10+ O3  
Lag 3 0.149(0.082,0.215)* 0.199(0.121,0.277)* 0.133(0.037,0.230)* 0.197(0.088,0.307)* 0.146(0.079,0.212)*  
Lag05 0.388(0.261,0.514)* 0.501(0.357,0.645)* 0.339(0.159,0.520)* 0.477(0.284,0.669)* 0.368(0.240,0.496)*  
SO2 SO2 SO2 + PM2.5 SO2+ NO2 SO2 + CO SO2+ O3 SO2 + PM10
Lag 4 0.066(−0.082,0.214) −0.038(−0.210,0.134) − 0.198(− 0.412,0.017) −0.041(− 0.226,0.144) 0.080(− 0.068,0.229) −0.106(− 0.280,0.068)
Lag05 0.004(− 0.308,0.316) −0.410(− 0.756,-0.063)* −1.091(−1.527,-0.653)* −0.420(− 0.783,-0.056)* 0.014(− 0.297,0.325) −0.578(− 0.926,-0.229)
NO2 NO2 NO2+ PM2.5 NO2+ SO2 NO2 + CO NO2+ O3 NO2 + PM10
Lag 1 0.527(0.211,0.843)* 0.459(0.034,0.885)* 0.995(0.550, 1.442)* 0.516(0.005, 1.030)* 0.563(0.245,0.882)* 0.361(−0.080,0.805)
Lag05 1.310(0.770,1.852)* 0.853(0.119,1.592)* 2.689(1.911,3.473)* 1.225(0.429,2.027)* 1.336(0.798,1.877)* 0.286(−0.471,1.049)
CO CO CO+ PM2.5 CO+ SO2 CO + NO2 CO+ O3 CO + PM10
Lag 1 0.013(0.003,0.023)* 0.0008(−0.009,0.025) 0.019(0.007, 0.031)* 0.000(−0.016,0.016) 0.014(0.004, 0.024)* 0.003(−0.013,0.019)
Lag05 0.034(0.016,0.051)* −0.004(− 0.038,0.029) 0.046(0.025,0.067)* 0.004(− 0.023,0.030) 0.038(0.020, 0.056)* − 0.016(− 0.043,0.010)
O3 O3 O3+ PM2.5 O3+ SO2 O3 + CO O3+ NO2 O3 + PM10
Lag4 0.189(0.031,0.347)* 0.188(0.031,0.346)* 0.196(0.038,0.354)* 0.226(0.066,0.387)* 0.221(0.063,0.380)* 0.171(0.014,0.329)*
Lag05 0.499(0.183,0.815)* 0.452(0.138,0.767)* 0.499(0.183,0.816)* 0.593(0.276,0.911)* 0.522(0.208,0.837)* 0.383(0.068,0.699)*
  1. *P < 0.01