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Table 6 Multivariable analysis of the associations between clinical variables and spirometry results, Pneumolaus study, 2014-2017, Lausanne, Switzerland

From: GLI 2012 equations define few spirometric anomalies in the general population: the PneumoLaus study

  Chronic obstruction p-value Reversible obstruction p-value Possible restriction p-value
Age (per year) 1.009 (0.989–1.028) 0.383 0.986 (0.964–1.009) 0.236 0.997 (0.971–1.024) 0.852
Gender (ref = woman) 1.589 (1.074–2.350) 0.02 1.187 (0.751–1.877) 0.463 1.796 (1.037–3.112) 0.037
Smoking status (ref = never) 3.495 (2.185–5.589) < 0.001 2.734 (1.654–4.519) < 0.001 0.534 (0.300–0.951) 0.033
Second-hand tobacco (ref = no)
 Before age 18 0.693 (0.467–1.028) 0.068 0.496 (0.305–0.806) 0.005 1.169 (0.679–2.014) 0.573
 As an adult 1.496 (0.991–2.259) 0.055 1.142 (0.717–1.818) 0.575 0.618 (0.349–1.092) 0.097
Other smoke / fumes (ref = no) 0.799 (0.484–1.320) 0.382 0.750 (0.399–1.409) 0.371 1.874 (1.012–3.470) 0.046
Chronic cough (ref = no) 0.822 (0.333–2.025) 0.670 0.637 (0.175–2.324) 0.495 0.558 (0.100–3.104) 0.505
Chronic sputum production (ref = no) 3.907 (1.524–10.01) 0.005 2.392 (0.578–9.895) 0.229 1.846 (0.303–11.25) 0.506
Dyspnoea (ref = MRC < 2) 1.869 (0.665–5.250) 0.235 1.435 (0.319–6.467) 0.638 6.868 (2.309–20.43) 0.001
Self-reported diagnosis of (ref = no)
 Asthma 4.709 (2.745–8.077) < 0.001 5.09 (2.760–9.386) < 0.001 2.719 (1.172–6.308) 0.020
 Chronic bronchitis, emphysema or COPD 9.637 (4.801–19.35) < 0.001 1.876 (0.413–8.523) 0.415 NA  
 Any other pulmonary disease 1.479 (0.385–5.688) 0.569 1.193 (0.207–6.872) 0.843 7.844 (2.597–23.70) < 0.001
Previous lung operation (ref = no) 2.409 (0.425–13.67) 0.321 9.572 (2.046–44.78) 0.004 6.738 (1.682–26.99) 0.007
  1. NA not assessable. Results are expressed as relative risk ratio and (95% confidence interval) using normal spirometry as the reference. The group “chronic obstruction” also contains the subjects with both “chronic obstruction and possible restriction”. The group “reversible obstruction” also contains the subject with both “reversible obstruction and possible restriction”