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Table 2 Respiratory risk factors according to spirometry results. PneumoLaus study, 2014–2017, Lausanne, Switzerland

From: GLI 2012 equations define few spirometric anomalies in the general population: the PneumoLaus study

Question Overall Normal spirometry Chronic obstruction Reversible obstruction Possible restriction p-value
N 3342 3070 128 83 61  
Smoking status:   < 0.001
 Never 1662 (49.7) 1574 (51.3) 25 (19.5) 24 (28.9) 39 (63.9)  
 Former 1075 (32.2) 975 (31.8) 49 (38.3) 37 (44.6) 14 (23.0)  
 Current 605 (18.1) 521 (17.0) 54 (42.2) 22 (26.5) 8 (13.1)  
Ever smoker (%) 1680 (50.3) 1496 (48.7) 103 (80.5) 59 (71.1) 22 (36.1) < 0.001
Mean pack years §ǂ 20 [10–30] 19 [10–30] 33 [15–48] 20 [15–35] 25 [10–40] < 0.001
Second-hand tobacco:
 Before age 18 1402 (42.0) 1295 (42.2) 54 (42.2) 26 (31.3) 27 (44.3) 0.253
 As an adult 1707 (51.1) 1547 (50.4) 88 (68.8) 48 (57.8) 24 (39.3) < 0.001
Other smoke / fumes 554 (16.6) 499 (16.3) 25 (19.5) 13 (15.7) 17 (27.9) 0.082
BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 ± 4.7 26.3 ± 4.6 a 25.3 ± 4.6 a 26.4 ± 4.4 a 29.1 ± 6.8 b < 0.001
  1. § among ever smokers. BMI body mass index. Results are expressed as number of participants and (column percentage) for categorical variables and as average ± standard deviation or median [interquartile range] for continuous variables. Between-group analysis performed using chi-square test for categorical variables and analysis of variance or nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (ǂ) for continuous variables. Post-hoc between-group comparisons of BMI performed using Scheff’s method; values with differing superscripts are significantly different at p < 0.005. The group “chronic obstruction” also contains the subjects with both “chronic obstruction and possible restriction”. The group “reversible obstruction” also contains the subject with both “reversible obstruction and possible restriction”