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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients by the length of hospital stay

From: Clinical variables predicting the risk of a hospital stay for longer than 7 days in patients with severe acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective study

Variables Normal LHS (≤ 7 days) (n = 213) Prolonged LHS (>  7 days) (n = 224) p value
Domiciliary medications    
Age, years 73 [64.5; 78] 72 [64; 78] 0.857
Male, % 82 80 0.637
BMI, kg/m2 27 [24.2; 29.4] 27.6 [23.4; 31.5] 0.486
Smoking habit: Current/Former, % 41/59 39/61 0.598
Pack/year 50 [40; 80] 60 [40; 80] 0.797
FEV1, % predicted 44 [33; 63] 42 [30; 58] 0.126
FEV1/FVC 49.5 [38.7; 62] 49 [36; 62.7] 0.823
GOLD 2017 stages: A/B/C/D, % 32/32/15/21 18/39/12/31 0.015
LTOT, % 22 32 0.013
mMRC dyspnoea grade 2 [1; 3] 2 [1; 4] 0.001
COPD-SS severity questionnaire 13 [8; 18] 14 [9; 19] 0.108
Charlson index 2 [1; 3] 2 [1; 3] 0.750
Ischaemic heart disease, % 11 9 0.501
Congestive heart disease, % 9 18 0.008
Diabetes, % 21 23 0.618
Chronic kidney failure, % 4 7 0.257
Season of admission: Winter/Spring/Summer/Autumn, % 40/14/29/17 45/16/25/14 0.508
Period of admission: years 2009–2011/2012–2104/2015–2017, % 61/31/8 58/30/12 0.463
Previous AECOPDa 0 [0; 1] 0 [0; 2] 0.286
Patients with ≥2 previous AECOPDa, % 24 27 0.501
Previous AECOPD requiring hospitalisationa 0 [0; 1] 0 [0; 1] 0.030
Patients with ≥1 previous AECOPD requiring hospitalisationa, % 28 37 0.029
Onset of symptoms until admission, days 4 [2; 7] 5 [3; 7.75] 0.035
Use of antibiotics previous admission
 In a period of one week before, % 24 23 0.924
 Days of treatment 7 [3; 10] 6 [3; 7] 0.625
 Penicillins/Fluoroquinolones/Macrolides/Cephalosporins/Others, % 30/48/11/2/9 24/40/18/11/7 0.248
 In a period of three months before, % 40 53 0.044
 Penicillins/Fluoroquinolones/Macrolides/Cephalosporins/Others, % 23/63/5/0/9 34/45/10/8/3 0.149
Use of other drugs in a period of two weeks before admission
 Systemic corticosteroids, % 12 13 0.867
 Salbutamol, % 4 14 0.001
 Ipratropium bromide, % 5 13 0.005
Domiciliary medications    
 Salbutamol only, % 3 3 0.922
 Anticholinergic only, % 5 5 0.819
 LABA + Anticholinergic, % 2 1 > 0.999
 LABA + ICS, % 3 2 > 0.999
 Anticholinergic + ICS, % 2 1 > 0.999
 LABA + Anticholinergic + ICS, % 36 37 0.828
  1. Data are shown as number of patients (percentage) or medians [1st quartile; 3rd quartile], unless otherwise stated. Percentages are calculated for non-missing data
  2. LABAs include salmeterol, formoterol and indacaterol; Anticholinergics include ipratropium and tiotropium; and ICS include budesonide and fluticasone
  3. aPrevious AECOPD were considered if occurring in a period of the preceding year
  4. Abbreviations: BMI indicates body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD-SS, COPD severity score questionnaire; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second; FVC, forced vital capacity; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; LABA, long-acting β2 agonist; LHS, length of hospital stay; LTOT, long-term oxygen therapy; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council