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Table 1 Baseline characteristics overall and stratified by gender and 6-year vital status in CAP

From: Dihydrotestosterone is a predictor for mortality in males with community-acquired pneumonia: results of a 6-year follow-up study

Characteristics Entire cohort
(N = 285)
MALE (N = 172) FEMALE (N = 113)
6-year vital status
Survivors
(n = 80)
Non-survivors
(n = 92)
P value Survivors
(n = 70)
Non-survivors
(n = 43)
p value
Demographics
 Age 71 [57, 81] 65 [46.5, 74.5] 78 [70, 84] < 0.001 62 [43, 75] 79 [72, 85] < 0.001
 Male 172 (60.4%)       
CAP characteristics
 PSI class
  I 32 (11.2%) 12 (15%) 0 (0%) < 0.001 18 (26%) 2 (5%) 0.004
  II 55 (19.3%) 22 (28%) 5 (5%) < 0.001 22 (31%) 6 (14%) 0.037
  III 52 (18.2%) 16 (20%) 16 (17%) 0.66 13 (19%) 7 (16%) 0.76
  IV 104 (36.5%) 23 (29%) 45 (49%) 0.007 15 (21%) 21 (49%) 0.002
  V 42 (14.7%) 7 (9%) 26 (28%) 0.001 2 (3%) 7 (16%) 0.011
CURB-65 score
 0 63 (22.1%) 24 (30%) 6 (7%) < 0.001 27 (39%) 6 (14%) 0.005
 I 67 (23.5%) 20 (25%) 21 (23%) 0.74 21 (30%) 5 (12%) 0.024
 II 82 (28.8%) 22 (28%) 29 (32%) 0.56 11 (16%) 20 (47%) < 0.001
 III 57 (20.0%) 11 (14%) 27 (29%) 0.014 10 (14%) 9 (21%) 0.36
 IV/V 16 (5.6%) 3 (4%) 9 (10%) 0.12 1 (1%) 3 (7%) 0.12
Comorbidities a
 Coronary heart disease 59 (20.7%) 11 (14%) 34 (37%) < 0.001 5 (7%) 9 (21%) 0.031
 Congestive heart failure 44 (15.4%) 4 (5%) 25 (27%) < 0.001 3 (4%) 12 (28%) < 0.001
 Cerebrovascular insult 28 (9.8%) 4 (5%) 15 (16%) 0.018 5 (7%) 4 (9%) 0.68
 PAOD 17 (6.0%) 5 (6%) 8 (9%) 0.55 2 (3%) 2 (5%) 0.62
 Chronic renal failure 67 (23.5%) 12 (15%) 30 (33%) 0.007 7 (10%) 18 (42%) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 55 (19.3%) 14 (18%) 23 (25%) 0.23 8 (11%) 10 (23%) 0.095
 Neoplastic disease 38 (13.3%) 9 (11%) 23 (25%) 0.021 3 (4%) 3 (7%) 0.54
Clinical history
 Fever 185 (65.1%) 68 (85%) 48 (53%) < 0.001 45 (64%) 24 (56%) 0.37
 Chills 87 (34.0%) 31 (42%) 23 (29%) 0.086 27 (42%) 6 (15%) 0.006
 Glucocorticoid pretreatment 22 (7.9%) 2 (3%) 13 (14%) 0.008 3 (4%) 4 (10%) 0.27
Clinical findings
 Confusion 20 (7.9%) 4 (5%) 13 (16%) 0.034 0 (0%) 3 (8%) 0.022
 Body temperature, °C 38 [37.2, 38.8] 38.4 [37.5, 39] 38 [37, 38.8] 0.090 37.9 [37.2, 38.6] 37.6 [36.9, 38.6] 0.21
 Breath rate, beaths/min. 20 [16, 25] 20 [16, 24] 24 [18, 28] 0.009 20 [17.00, 24.00] 22 [17, 28] 0.14
 Heart rate, beats/min. 94 [82, 105] 92 [86, 105.5] 95.5 [80, 105] 0.86 95 [82, 109] 93 [82, 100] 0.28
 SBP, mmHg 130 [117, 148] 130.5 [121, 150] 128.5 [104, 150] 0.077 131 [117, 145] 133 [118, 145] 0.96
 Arterial pH 7.46 [7.42, 7.49] 7.46 [7.44, 7.49] 7.44 [7.41, 7.48] 0.095 7.46 (7.43, 7.50) 7.45 (7.40, 7.50) 0.11
 qSOFA (≥ 2) 25 (10.6%) 2 (3%) 18 (25%) < 0.001 0 (0%) 5 (14%) 0.003
Admission laboratory findings
 CRP, mg/l 132 [65, 252] 145 [78, 240] 110 [55, 252] 0.17 148[105, 284] 121 [62, 234] 0.13
 PCT, mcg/l 0.48 [0.16, 3.20] 0.42 [0.19, 3.56] 0.51 [0.16, 2.60] 0.48 0.72 [0.12, 5.58] 0.32 [0.16, 1.50] 0.52
 Progesterone, nmol/l 0.69 [0.44, 1.43] 0.69 [0.46, 1.57] 0.66 [0.37, 1.06] 0.26 0.88 [0.56, 2.62] 0.73 [0.52, 1.09] 0.13
 17-OH-Progesterone, nmol/l 1.74 [0.87, 3.35] 1.88 [1.08, 3.32] 1.67 [0.96, 3.36] 0.51 1.67 [0.54, 3.50] 1.55 [0.63, 3.18] 0.94
 Aldosterone, nmol/l 0.06 [0.03, 0.20] 0.07 [0.04, 0.22] 0.05 [0.03, 0.18] 0.18 0.05 [0.03, 0.17] 0.08 [0.04, 0.19] 0.43
 DHEA, nmol/l 13.43 [7.73, 209.55] 39.74 [8.8, 409.4] 7.67 [6.27, 142.2] 0.071 21.84 [9.90, 330.01] 11.47 [6.78, 26.52] 0.18
 DHEA-S, nmol/l 2280.09 [836.72, 3660.99] 3975.42 [2837.7, 7960.95] 1193.58 [647.62, 2559.29] < 0.001 2317.52 [1537.38, 3660.99] 911.44 [379.14, 2506.82] 0.081
 Androstenedione, nmol/l 2.78 [1.36, 4.58] 2.86 [1.29, 4.33] 2.33 [1.24, 4.35] 0.44 3.18 [1.75, 6.24] 2.80 [1.18, 4.78] 0.11
 Testosterone, nmol/l 1.63 [0.49, 4.68] 4.36 [1.98, 6.22] 3.29 [2.04, 6.39] 0.62 0.50 [0.29, 0.70] 0.34 [0.24, 0.56] 0.13
 Dihydrotestosterone, nmol/l 1.31 [0.26, 2.83] 0.91 [0.22, 2.16] 1.59 [1.07, 3.42] 0.11 0.84 [0.42, 2.83] 1.69 [0.18, 3.09] 0.93
  1. Data are presented as median [IQR] or number (percentage); p values are considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. Bold values indicate statistical significance. CAP community-acquired pneumonia, CRP C-reactive protein, CURB-65 ‘confusion’, ‘urea > 7 mmol/L’, ‘respiratory rate > 30/min’, ‘blood pressure systolic < 90 mmHg or diastolic < 60 mmHg’, ‘age ≥ 65 years’; DHEA dihydroepiandrosterone, DHEA-S dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate, IQR interquartile range, PAOD peripheral artery occlusive disease, PCT procalcitonin, PSI pneumonia severity index, SBP systolic blood pressure, qSOFA quick sequential organ failure assessment
  2. aComorbidities were identified based on medical records or patient report