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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the study population, by spirometry classification and smoking status

From: Cytotoxic lymphocytes in COPD airways: increased NK cells associated with disease, iNKT and NKT-like cells with current smoking

Part 1: Characterizing the inflammation
  All COPD subjects (COPD) n = 22 Ever-smokers with normal LF (EvS) n = 15 Non-smokers with normal LF (NoS) n = 15 p
    Female:Male 6:16 8:7 4:11  
    Agea 65 ± 7 67 ± 6 66 ± 8 NS
    BMIb 26 ± 3 26 ± 2 28 ± 5 NS
    Current:Ex-smokersb 11:11 3:12 0:0  
    Pack-yearsb 36 ± 14 18 ± 9 0 p = 0.0002 COPD vs EvS; p < 0.0001 COPD vs NoS
    FEV1, percent of predicteda 61.5 ± 17 108 ± 19 103 ± 17 p < 0.0001 COPD vs EvS; p < 0.0001 COPD vs NoS;
    FEV1/VC a 0.53 ± 0.11 0.73 ± 0.04 0.78 ± 0.04 p < 0.0001 COPD vs EvS; p < 0.0001 COPD vs NoS;
    BAL-recovery, %c 42 ± 17 61 ± 12 63 ± 10 p = 0.0006 COPD vs EvS: p = 0.0001 COPD vs NoS
    Annual decline in FEV1, mla 57 ± 42 NA NA  
    Rapid:Non-rapid declineb 12:10 NA NA  
Part 2: Separating the effect of smoking from that of COPD
  COPD current smokers (CCuS) n = 11 COPD ex-smokers (CExS) n = 11 Ex-smokers with normal LF (ExS) n = 12 p
    Female:Malea 2:9 4:7 6:6  
    Agea 61 ± 5 69 ± 6 67 ± 7 p = 0.0048 CCuS vs CExS
    BMIb 25 ± 4 26 ± 2 26 ± 2 NS
    Pack-yearsb 38 ± 9.3 33 ± 18 18 ± 9 p = 0.0444 CCuS vs CExS; p = 0.0158 CExS vs ExS
    FEV1, percent of predicteda 61 ± 16 62 ± 18 107 ± 17 p < 0.0001 CExS vs ExS
    FEV1/VC a 0.53 ± 0.12 0.53 ± 0.12 0.73 ± 0.04 p < 0.0001 CExS vs Exs
    BAL-recovery, %c 47 ± 17 37 ± 17 64 ± 7 p < 0.0001 CExS vs ExS
    Annual decline in FEV1, mla 73 ± 44 39 ± 36 NA p = 0.0199 CCuS vs CExS
    Rapid:Non-rapid declineb 8:3 4:7 NA  
Part 3: COPD and a rapid/non-rapid of decline in lung function
  COPD rapid decline in LF n = 12 COPD non-rapid decline in LF n = 10 p  
    Female:Male 2:10 4:6   
    Agea 63 ± 7 67 ± 6 p = 0.0358  
    BMIb 26 ± 3 25 ± 3 NS  
    Current:Ex-smokersb 8:4 3:7   
    Pack-yearsb 37.5 ± 16 33 ± 11 NS  
    FEV1, percent of predicteda 60 ± 15 63 ± 19 NS  
    FEV1/VC a 0.52 ± 0.12 0.54 ± 0.11 NS  
    BAL-recovery, %c 44 ± 16 40 ± 19 NS  
    Annual decline in FEV1, mla 86 ± 29 16 ± 16 p < 0.0001  
  1. Values given as mean ± SD unless indicated differently. Statistical comparisons between the three groups were made using Kruskal Wallis test and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. If the Kruskal Wallis test indicated significance, the Mann-Whitney U-test was used for post hoc analysis. NS: Not significant. Pack-years: (number of cigarettes smoked per day/20) × number of years smoked. FEV1: Forced Expiratory Volume in one second. VC: Vital Capacity. Annual Decline in FEV1, ml: calculated using data from the OLIN COPD study as (FEV1 at recruitment – FEV1 at follow-up)/number of years of follow-up, based on highest value pre- or post-bronchodilation
  2. aAt inclusion in the current study
  3. bAt identification in the OLIN COPD study
  4. cAt time of bronchoscopy in the current study