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Table 1 Characteristics of the 165 study participants at baseline

From: Use and inhalation technique of inhaled medication in patients with asthma and COPD: data from a randomized controlled trial

Variable Number(%) or Mean ± SD
All
(n = 165)
Asthma
(n = 50)
COPD
(n = 89)
ACO
(n = 26)
Age 66.8 ± 11.5 61.1 ± 15.1 69.8 ± 8.5 67.2 ± 8.0
Male 106 (64.2) 23 (46) 63 (70.8) 20 (76.9)
Marital status
 Unmarried 19 (11.5) 7 (14) 11 (12.4) 1 (3.8)
 Married 104 (63.0) 33 (66) 51 (57.3) 20 (76.9)
 Divorced/widowed 42 (25.5) 10 (20) 27 (30.3) 5 (19.2)
Highest level of education at school
 Primary school 27 (16.4) 6 (12) 18 (20.2) 3 (11.5)
 Apprenticeship 97 (58.8) 25 (50) 55 (61.8) 17 (65.4)
 Higher professional education 22 (13.3) 7 (14) 11 (12.4) 4 (15.4)
 University–entrance Diploma/Commercial college 3 (1.8) 3 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 University /College of higher education 16 (9.7) 9 (18) 5 (5.6) 2 (7.7)
Smoking status
 Current smokers 32 (19.4) 5 (10) 24 (27) 3 (11.5)
 Non-smokers 37 (22.4) 28 (56) 5 (5.6) 4 (15.4)
 Ex-smokers 96 (58.2) 17 (34) 60 (67.4) 19 (73.1)
Pack-years 35.0 ± 34.3 8.0 ± 14.3 58.5 ± 33.0 32.3 ± 35.5
Body mass index [kg/m2] 27.2 ± 5.1 26.9 ± 3.9 26.9 ± 5.6 28.5 ± 5.3
GOLD stage (n = 115)
 1 (FEV1 > 80% predicted) 8 (6.9)   6 (6.7) 2 (7.7)
 2 (FEV1 50–80% predicted) 47 (40.9)   33 (37.1) 14 (53.8)
 3 (FEV1 30–50% predicted) 46 (40.0)   36 (40.4) 10 (38.5)
 4 (FEV1 < 30% predicted) 14 (12.2)   14 (15.7) 0 (0)
Lung function parameters
 FEV1% predicted 59.9 ± 24.5 80.0 ± 19.9a 48.2 ± 20.0 61.9 ± 21.1b
 FVC % predicted 90.2 ± 19.0 98.7 ± 17.7a 85.0 ± 18.4 92.3 ± 17.6b
 FEV1/FVC ratio 51.9 ± 16.7 66.3 ± 12.3a 43.7 ± 13.9 52.9 ± 14.3b
 DLCO % predicted 72.2 ± 21.8 88.9 ± 15.7 61.1 ± 19.2 78.0 ± 17.5
Asthma Control Test (n = 76)
 Sum score 19.5 ± 4.5 20.7 ± 3.8   17.15 ± 5.0
 Poorly controlled 15 (19.7) 5 (10)   10 (38.5)
 Not well-controlled 14 (18.4) 8 (16)   6 (23.1)
 Well controlled 47 (61.9) 37 (74)   10 (38.5)
COPD Assessment Test (n = 115)
 Sum score 16.1 ± 7   16 ± 7 16.6 ± 7.2
 Low impact 25 (21.8)   19 (21.3) 6 (23.1)
 Medium impact 58 (50.4)   46 (51.7) 12 (46.2)
 High impact 29 (25.2)   22 (24.7) 7 (26.9)
 Very high impact 3 (2.6)   2 (2.2) 1 (3.8)
SGRQ (n = 165)
 Symptoms score 47.0 ± 24.1 35.9 ± 19.1 50.6 ± 23.6 55.9 ± 27.9
 Activity score 48.6 ± 22.3 34.5 ± 21.0 54.9 ± 20.2 54.4 ± 20.0
 Impact score 25.6 ± 18.1 19.1 ± 15.4 27.6 ± 17.7 31.1 ± 21.0
 Total Score 36.1 ± 18.1 26.6 ± 15.4 39.6 ± 17.2 42.3 ± 19.6
Known allergies 68 (41.2) 33 (66) 17 (19.1) 18 (69.2)
Number of exacerbations in the past 12 months
 1 92 (55.8) 29 (58) 50 (56.2) 13 (50)
 2 28 (17) 11 (22) 15 (16.9) 2 (7.7)
 3 21 (12.7) 5 (10) 10 (11.2) 6 (23.1)
  > 3 24 (14.5) 5 (10) 14 (15.7) 5 (19.2)
Number of antibiotic treatments in the past 12 months
 Never 13 (7.9) 8 (16) 4 (4.5) 1 (3.8)
 Once 91 (55.2) 29 (58) 50 (56.2) 12 (46.2)
 2–3 times 43 (26.1) 12 (24) 23 (25.8) 8 (30.8)
 More than 3 times 18 (10.9) 1 (2) 12 (13.5) 5 (19.2)
Number of systemic corticosteroid treatments in the past 12 months
 Never 77 (46.7) 23 (46) 44 (49.4) 10 (38.5)
 Once 44 (26.7) 12 (24) 26 (29.2) 6 (23.1)
 2–3 times 19 (11.5) 7 (14) 7 (7.9) 5 (19.2)
 More than 3 times 25 (15.2) 8 (16) 12 (13.5) 5 (19.2)
Number of emergency department attendance
 Never 103 (62.4) 40 (80) 48 (53.9) 15 (57.7)
 Once 44 (26.7) 8 (16) 28 (31.5) 8 (30.8)
 2–3 times 16 (9.7) 2 (4) 11 (12.4) 3 (11.5)
 More than 3 times 2 (1.2) 0 (0) 2 (2.2) 0 (0)
Number of exacerbations with hospitalization in the past 12 months
 Never 97 (58.8) 39 (78) 43 (48.3) 15 (57.7)
 Once 51 (30.9) 7 (14) 34 (38.2) 10 (38.5)
 2–3 times 14 (8.5) 4 (8) 9 (10.1) 1 (3.8)
 More than 3 times 3 (1.8) 0 (0) 3 (3.4) 0 (0)
  1. an = 49, bn = 25, ACO Asthma-COPD-overlap, DLCO Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxid, FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in one second, FVC Forced vital capacity, SGRQ St. George Respiratory Questionnaire