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Table 2 Effects of respiratory muscle training on the IMT, CTSC, CTDC, and sham training

From: Combination of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training in same respiratory cycle versus different cycles in COPD patients: a randomized trial

  Sham training
(n=23)
IMT
(n=23)
CTSC
(n=23)
CTDC
(n=23)
F P-value
Δ BMI (kg/m2) -0.084±0.489 -0.456±0.727 -0.145±0.534 -0.254±0.611 1.540 0.210
Δ FFMI (kg/m2) -0.182±0.400 -0.231±0.537 0.128±0.913 -0.070±0.664 1.371 0.257
ΔPImax(cmH2O) 2.150±4.30 9.830±6.857a 8.722±6.052a 8.130±6.548a 7.347 <0.001
ΔPEmax (cmH2O) 2.160±5.107 4.544±4.119 8.844±8.155a,b 8.313±6.635a,b 5.710 0.001
Δ mMRC 0.130±0.548 -0.304±0.559a -0.261±0.449a -0.217±0.422 a 3.558 0.018
Δ FVC(L) -0.013±0.098 -0.011±0.175 0.007±0.138 -0.059±0.158 0.706 0.551
Δ FEV1(L) -0.005±0.081 -0.020±0.109 0.020±0.120 -0.030±0.086 0.561 0.642
ΔFEV1%pred (%) -0.261±3.427 -0.826±4.549 -0.174±5.789 -2.030±5.358 0.688 0.562
Δ FEV1/FVC -0.002±0.034 -0.001±0.034 0.014±0.049 0.002±0.017 0.940 0.425
Δ 6MWD(m) 8.478±20.784 24.174±18.364 19.087±26.787 19.739±12.941 2.175 0.097
Δ CAT 0.304±2.098 -2.304±2.787a -1.435±1.903a -1.739±1.484a 6.575 0.0005
Δ SGRQ -0.174±2.103 -3.087±2.429a -2.565±1.927a -2.261±1.322a 9.124 <0.001
Δ HADS -0.174±1.370 -0.609±1.559 -0.652±1.849 -0.130±1.714 0.692 0.559
Δ BODE -0.174±0.778 -0.478±1.163 -0.348±1.434 -0.174±1.230 0.472 0.703
  1. Abbreviations: IMT inspiratory muscle training, CTSC combined training in same cycle, CTDC combined training in different cycles, BMI body mass index, FFMI fat-free mass index, PImax maximal inspiratory pressure, PEmax maximal expiratory pressure, mMRC modified Medical Research Council, FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second, %pred percent predicted, 6MWD 6-minute walking distance, CAT COPD Assessment Test, SGRQ St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, BODE body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index
  2. Data are presented as mean± SE unless otherwise indicated; Δ, difference (after minus before intervention); aP<0.05vs control group; bP<0.05vs IMT group