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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Combination of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training in same respiratory cycle versus different cycles in COPD patients: a randomized trial

  Sham training
(n=23)
IMT
(n=23)
CTSC
(n=23)
CTDC
(n=23)
F P-value
Age(year) 69.43±6.44 67.49±6.17 68.26±7.03 67.22±7.35 0.498 0.685
Smoking index 513.04±559.47 356.52±389.44 380.87±448.49 355.22±446.89 0.603 0.614
BMI(kg/m2) 20.86±4.41 22.09±3.37 21.86±3.03 22.99±2.28 1.662 0.188
FFMI(kg/m2) 16.47±2.20 15.51±2.35 15.76±2.72 16.82±1.38 1.740 0.165
PImax>60cmH2O 72.73±12.59(n=12) 75.01±17.91(n=9) 75.79±9.79(n=8) 72.55±8.52(n=11) 0.211 0.888
PImax≤60cmH2O 46.12±11.03(n=11) 44.6±10.87(n=14) 43.83±10.41(n=15) 52.29±8.21(n=12) 1.795 0.161
PEmax (cmH2O) 63.82±18.46 60.26±19.96 56.10±16.73 62.13±13.56 0.844 0.473
mMRC 1.609±0.839 1.652±0.832 1.913±0.793 1.478±0.790 1.155 0.332
FVC(L) 2.312±0.781 2.229±0.673 2.076±0.813 2.298±0.593 0.517 0.671
FEV1(L) 1.137±0.462 1.161±0.325 0.967±0.292 1.120±0.339 1.375 0.256
FEV1%pred (%) 48.217±15.030 46.652±13.506 42.565±12.033 47.248±12.404 0.806 0.494
FEV1/FVC 0.501±0.123 0.534±0.108 0.505±0.172 0.495±0.112 0.554 0.648
6MWD(m) 415.130±52.301 398.957±78.733 382.087±81.637 400.652±78.016 0.776 0.510
CAT 10.478±5.846 10.696±4.106 12.609±4.131 10.348±5.149 1.094 0.356
SGRQ 16.435±7.415 17.348±6.184 18.783±5.018 17.565±7.051 0.511 0.676
HADS 5.870±3.293 5.174±2.125 5.696±2.835 5.000±3.568 0.436 0.727
BODE 2.870±1.576 3.304±1.636 3.826±1.154 2.783±1.930 2.614 0.062
  1. Data are presented as mean± SD unless otherwise indicated
  2. Abbreviations: IMT inspiratory muscle training, CTSC combined training in same cycle, CTDC combined training in different cycles, BMI body mass index, FFMI fat-free mass index, PImax maximal inspiratory pressure, PEmax maximal expiratory pressure, mMRC modified Medical Research Council, FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second, %pred percent predicted, 6MWD 6-minute walking distance, CAT COPD Assessment Test, SGRQ St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, BODE body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index