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Table 3 Risk of pneumonia by type of treatment (FP, other ICS, no ICS use) at baseline

From: Concomitant inhaled corticosteroid use and the risk of pneumonia in COPD: a matched-subgroup post hoc analysis of the UPLIFT® trial

  Treatment at baseline Comparison
FP Other ICS No ICS FP versus other ICS
HR* or RR
(95% CI);
p-value
FP versus no ICS
HR* or RR
(95% CI);
p-value
Other ICS versus no ICS
HR* or RR
(95% CI);
p-value
Use at baseline, n 1334 1334 1334
Patients with pneumonia event, n (%)# 207 (15.5) 184 (13.8) 169 (12.7) HR 1.20
(0.99, 1.47);
p = 0.067
HR 1.30
(1.06, 1.59);
p = 0.012
HR 1.08
(0.88, 1.33);
p = 0.467
Pneumonia events, n 286 220 214
Adjusted rate of pneumonia events (per patient-year), mean (95% CI) 0.10
(0.08, 0.12)
0.07
(0.06, 0.09)
0.07
(0.05, 0.09)
RR 1.35
(1.05, 1.74);
p = 0.020
RR 1.37
(1.06, 1.78);
p = 0.015
RR 1.02
(0.77, 1.34);
p = 0.907
Patients with hospitalized pneumonia events, n (%) 140 (10.5) 114 (8.5) 100 (7.5) HR 1.31
(1.02, 1.68);
p = 0.032
HR 1.48
(1.14, 1.91);
p = 0.003
HR 1.13
(0.86, 1.47);
p = 0.382
Hospitalized pneumonia events, n 172 133 121
Adjusted rate of hospitalized pneumonia events (per patient-year), mean (95% CI) 0.06
(0.04, 0.08)
0.04
(0.03, 0.06)
0.04
(0.03, 0.05)
RR 1.34
(0.99, 1.81);
p = 0.055
RR 1.46
(1.07, 1.98);
p = 0.016
RR 1.09
(0.79, 1.51);
p = 0.607
Patients with pneumonia resulting in death, n (%) 8 (0.60) 18 (1.35) 15 (1.12) HR 0.46
(0.20, 1.05);
p = 0.066
HR 0.55
(0.23, 1.30);
p = 0.174
HR 1.20
(0.61, 2.39);
p = 0.595
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FP fluticasone propionate, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, HR hazard ratio, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, RR rate ratio. Matched-subgroup population. *Cox regression analysis with ICS use at baseline and matching factors as covariates. Poisson regression with ICS use at baseline and matching factors (age, FEV1% predicted, GOLD stage, emphysema diagnosis, and courses of antibiotics) as covariates. #32 patients treated with FP at baseline received this treatment for non-pulmonary (mostly nasal) indication only; four of these patients had a pneumonia event during the study. In the “other ICS” group, these numbers were 43 and 11, respectively
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