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Table 5 HR for pneumonia in COPD patients only, including FEV1 and comorbidities in a multivariate model

From:  Identifying the associated risks of pneumonia in COPD patients: ARCTIC an observational study

  Hazard ratio (95% CI) p-value
Agea 1.01 (1.00–1.01) 0.06
Maleb 1.13 (1.03–1.25) 0.01
 No ICS 1  
 Low ICSc 1.23 (1.10–1.38) 0.0003
 High ICSd 1.41 (1.23–1.62) < 0.0001
FEV1 < 50% 1.33 (1.21–1.47)  
FEV1 ≥ 50% 1  
No asthma 1  
Asthma 1.13 (1.01–1.27) 0.0310
Charlson Comorbidity indexe 1.02 (0.96–1.09) 0.4621
  1. aIncreased risk for every 1 year increase in age; bIncreased risk for males compared to females; cLow dose ICS: < 640 μg/day; dHigh dose ICS: ≥800 μg/day; eFor each one unit increase in Charlson Comorbidity index
  2. CI confidence intervals, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, HR hazard ratio, ICS inhaled corticosteroids