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Table 4 Hazard ratio for pneumonia in COPD patients stratified by presence of asthma

From:  Identifying the associated risks of pneumonia in COPD patients: ARCTIC an observational study

  COPD without asthma Hazard ratio (95% CI)
(N = 4299)
COPD with asthma Hazard ratio (95% CI)
(N = 2324)
Agea 1.05 (1.05–1.06) 1.05 (1.05–1.05)
Malesb 1.19 (1.12–1.27) 1.21 (1.14–1.29)
Reference populationc 1 1
 COPD with no ICS versus ref 3.35 (2.82–3.97) 5.00 (4.56–5.48)
 COPD with low ICSd versus ref 7.86 (6.96–8.89) 6.36 (5.69–7.11)
 COPD with high ICSe versus ref 7.08 (6.22–8.04) 4.56 (3.76–5.53)
Within the COPD group: ICS use compared with no ICS use
 No ICS 1 1
 Low ICS 1.29 (1.05–1.58) 1.46 (1.28–1.67)
 High ICS 1.59 (1.30–1.96) 1.69 (1.37–2.07)
  1. aIncreased risk for every 1 year increase in age; bIncreased risk for males compared to females; cReference population = case matched population with no asthma or COPD but with lung function measurements; dLow dose ICS: < 640 μg/day; eHigh dose ICS: ≥800 μg/day
  2. CI confidence intervals, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, ref reference