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Table 3 Hazard ratio for pneumonia in COPD patients stratified by FEV1

From:  Identifying the associated risks of pneumonia in COPD patients: ARCTIC an observational study

  FEV1 < 50% Hazard ratio (95% CI)
(N = 2730)
FEV1 ≥ 50% Hazard ratio (95% CI)
(N = 5547)
Agea 1.04 (1.03–1.04) 1.04 (1.04–1.04)
Malesb 1.28 (1.20–1.36) 1.26 (1.19–1.34)
COPD + asthma compared with referencec
 Reference 1 1
 No ICS 3.06 (2.35–3.97) 4.61 (3.70–5.75)
 Low ICSd 6.61 (5.43–8.05) 5.31 (4.57–6.18)
 High ICSe 6.40 (5.30–7.72) 5.40 (4.56–6.38)
‘COPD without asthma’ compared with referencec
 Reference 1 1
 No ICS 4.35 (3.79–4.99) 4.01 (3.58–4.49)
 Low ICS 6.15 (5.23–7.24) 4.52 (3.91–5.23)
 High ICS 4.91 (3.82–6.31) 4.62 (3.45–6.18)
‘COPD without asthma’: ICS use compared with no ICS use in the COPD population
 No ICS 1 1
 Low ICS 1.06 (0.91–1.25) 1.20 (1.05–1.38)
 High ICS 0.98 (0.81–1.17) 1.31 (1.10–1.56)
  1. aIncreased risk for every one year increase in age; bIncreased risk for males compared to females; cReference population (n = 48,566); case matched population with no asthma or COPD but with lung function measurements; dLow dose ICS: < 640 μg/day; eHigh dose ICS: ≥800 μg/day
  2. CI confidence intervals, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, ICS inhaled corticosteroids