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Table 1 Baseline patient demographics for patients with lung function measurements and reference controlsa without ICS usage

From:  Identifying the associated risks of pneumonia in COPD patients: ARCTIC an observational study

Variable COPD with lung function data (N = 6623) Reference, without ICS usage (N = 48,566) p-value
Age, mean years ± SD 65.9 ± 10.1 64.5 ± 10.5 < 0.0001
Female, n (%) 3688 (55.7) 26,792 (55.2) 0.4699
Comorbidities below, n (%)
 Asthma, J45 974 (14.7) 0 < 0.0001
 Cardiovascular disease, I00-I99 2514 (38.0) 9932 (20.4) < 0.0001
 Hypertensive diseases, I10-I15 1707 (25.8) 5941 (12.2) < 0.0001
 Ischemic heart diseases, I20-I25 584 (8.8) 2052 (4.2) < 0.0001
 Cerebrovascular diseases, I60-I69 213 (3.2) 1182 (2.4) 0.0001
 Diabetes Type I, E10 83 (1.2) 757 (1.6) 0.0568
 Diabetes Type II, E11 + E13 418 (6.3) 2049 (4.2) < 0.0001
 Hyperlipidemia, E78.5 161 (2.4) 502 (1.0) < 0.0001
 Depression, F32 + F33 456 (6.9) 873 (1.8) < 0.0001
 Osteoporosis, M80 + M81 139 (2.1) 402 (0.8) < 0.0001
 Fractures, S2 356 (5.4) 1968 (4.0) < 0.0001
 Charlson Comorbidity Index value, mean ± SD 1.55 ± 0.8 1.26 ± 0.6 < 0.0001
Health care utilization
 Number of outpatient hospital visits/year in 2 years before index date, mean ± SD 1.53 ± 2.4 1.60 ± 3.7 0.1980
 Number of contacts to primary care/year in 2 years before index date, mean ± SD 12.0 ± 16.0 4.14 ± 13.6 < 0.0001
ICS use, n (%)
 No ICS 3385 (51.1) NA  
 Low dose ICSb 2189 (33.0) NA  
 High dose ICSc 1049 (15.8) NA  
  1. aPatients in the reference control group were excluded if they had a diagnosis of COPD and/or asthma and did not take ICS; bLow dose ICS: < 640 μg/day; cHigh dose ICS: ≥800 μg/day
  2. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, NA not applicable