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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all included patients

From: Better approach for autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis treatment: inhaled or subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: a meta-analyses

Study author/year No. Sex, M/F Age, y Ever smoking Anti GM-CSF Ab GM-CSF dose GM-CSF duration WLL Response Relapse Side effect, N
Subcutaneous
 Kavuru et al. [22] 4 4/0 34.3 ± 11.2 3 NA 1-4wk, 250μg/d;
5-8wk, up to 5μg/kg/d;
9thwk, up to 7-9μg/kg/d
12 wk 3 3 0 nausea
and emisis, 1
 Seymour et al. [17] 14 9/5 33 (14–78) 7 12a 1-5d 3.0μg/kg/d;
6thd, up to 5.0μg/kg/d;
if no response,
up to 7.5-30 μg/kg/d
12 wk. 10 6 5 neutropenia, 1;
first dose effect, 4;
local erythema, 6;
headache, 1;
fever, 1; asymptomatic splenomegaly 1
 Venkateshiah et al. [23] 25 18/7 45 (21–57) 13 25 1-4wk, 250μg/d;
5-8wk, up to 5μg/kg/d;
9thwk, up to 9μg/kg/d;
if no response or suboptimal, up to 9-18μg/kg/d
52 wk 21 12 4 erythema, 18;
fatigue, 7;
fever, 4;
dyspnea, 10;
injection-site edema, 12
 Khan et al. [25] 4 3/1 40 ± 5.2 NA NA 5μg/kg/d 12 wk 3 4 0 NA
 Hadda et al. [24] 3 0/3 48.3 ± 22 NA 2a 3-5 μg/kg/d 6 wk 3 3 0 neutrophilic leukocytosis, 1
Inhaled
 Wylam et al. [26] 12 7/5 42.8 (22–63) 8 6a 250μg bid every other week;
if no response up to 500μg bid
32 wk 2 11 5 no side effects
 Tazawa et al. [27] 39 22/17 56 (46–63) 21 39 high dose:
1-8d, 250μg/d, 9-14d none,
six 2-wk cycles;
low dose:
1-4d, 125μg/d, 5-14d none,
six 2-wk cycles
24 wk 11 24 1 total, 7;
fever, 1;
respiratory infection,1;
otitis media, 1;
gastric ulcer, 1;
diarrhea, 1;
pneumonia, 1;
tuberculous lymphadenitis, 1
 Papiris et al. [28] 6 1/5 43.8 ± 15.7 2 6 1-4d, 250μg/d, 5-8d none,
as long as necessary;
if remission, dose down;
if relapse, dose up;
14–65 mo 5 6 2 no significant
adverse effects
 Tazawa et al. [29] 3 1/2 54.7 ± 3.2 2 3 125μg, bid,
during alternate weeks
24 wk 1 3 1 no side effects
 Ohkouchi et al. [30] 5 4/1 45.8 ± 15.7 4 5 1-8d, 125μg bid, 9-14d, none,
six 2-wk cycles;
1-4d, 125μg bid, 5-14d, none,
six 2-wk cycles
24 wk 5 5 0 NA
  1. All data are given in median (range) or mean ± SD;
  2. No number, M/F male/female, WLL whole lung lavage, GM-CSF Ab granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor antibody;
  3. d day, wk week, mo month, NA not available; a the number of detected patients and all were positive