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Table 4 Risk factors associated with the odds of pneumonic infiltrate at exacerbation

From: Impact of radiologically stratified exacerbations: insights into pneumonia aetiology in COPD

Characteristic OR (95% CI) P-value
Age (per year) 0.996 (0.952–1.042) 0.869
Male sex 1.036 (0.501–2.143) 0.923
BMI (per 1 kg/m2) 0.995 (0.938–1.056) 0.938
Current smoker 1.524 (0.700–3.319) 0.288
ICS use 3.552 (0.322–39.159 0.301
Maintenance bronchodilator usea 1.253 (0.182–8.641) 0.819
FEV1% predicted
  ≥ 50% Reference   
 30- < 50% 1.044 (0.496–2.198) 0.909
  < 30% 1.987 (0.763–5.174) 0.159
Season
 Spring (Mar – May) 1.435 (0.498–4.134) 0.504
 Summer (Jun – Aug) Reference   
 Autumn (Sep – Nov) 1.198 (0.407–3.523) 0.743
 Winter (Dec – Feb) 3.056 (1.139–8.200) 0.027
Sputum purulence 1.112 (0.572–2.162) 0.755
Fever 2.583 (0.979–6.811) 0.055
Cold and/or sore throat 0.435 (0.223–0.847) 0.014
Blood eosinophils < 2% at exacerbation 0.871 (0.451–1.681) 0.680
CRP < 6 mg/L Reference   
CRP 6–18 mg/L 2.886 (1.123–7.419) 0.028
CRP > 18 mg/L 5.723 (2.273–14.407) < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, CRP C-reactive protein
  2. Clustered multivariate logistic regression analysis, including the patient as a random effect, for 313 exacerbations (63 with infiltrate, 250 without) with complete data for all the variables included in the model. Other independent variables included in the regression model were influenza and pneumococcal vaccine in the year prior to enrolment
  3. arefers to the use of either a long acting beta agonist or long acting muscarinic antagonist, alone or in combination with other inhaled medication
  4. CRP ranges based on categorisation by tertiles