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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of all exacerbations, stratified by the presence or absence of pneumonic infiltrate

From: Impact of radiologically stratified exacerbations: insights into pneumonia aetiology in COPD

  All exacerbations (n = 343) Exacerbations without infiltrate (n = 274) Exacerbations with infiltrate(n = 69) P-value*
na    na    na    
FEV1 (Litres) 311 0.96 (0.62) 255 1.0 (0.62) 56 0.85 (0.68) 0.042
FEV1 (% predicted) 311 40.2 (18.7) 255 41.0 (19.1) 56 37.1 (19.4) 0.038
FEV1/FVC ratio 311 0.39 (0.17) 255 0.39 (0.18) 56 0.35 (0.15) 0.075
CAT score 334 22 (10) 265 22 (10) 69 21 (10) 0.568
EXACT score 318 41 (10) 251 42 (9) 67 40 (11) 0.791
Blood WCC (cellsx109L) 328 8.65 (3.98) 261 8.30 (3.60) 67 9.70 (4.90) < 0.001
Blood neutrophils (cellsx109L) 328 5.75 (3.50) 261 5.50 (3.10) 67 7.30 (4.50) < 0.001
Blood eosinophils (cellsx109L) 328 0.20 (0.20) 261 0.20 (0.20) 67 0.20 (0.20) 0.715
% blood eosinophils 328 1.98 (2.43) 261 2.04 (2.43) 67 1.69 (2.28) 0.155
CRP (mg/L) 335 10.0 (23.0) 268 8.0 (16.8) 67 25.0 (61.0) < 0.001
Fibrinogen (g/L) 314 5.3 (1.8) 250 5.2 (1.5) 64 6.2 (2.0) < 0.001
Procalcitonin (μg/L) 327 0.0767 (0.0400) 260 0.0751 (0.0400) 67 0.0835 (0.0400) 0.054
Sputum bacterial detection (culture)
n, (%)
308 184 (59.7) 245 140 (57.1) 63 44 (69,8) 0.067
Sputum bacterial detection (PCR)
n, (%)
295 200 (67.8) 234 153 (65.4) 61 47 (77.0) 0.082
Sputum viral detection (PCR)
n, (%)
294 126 (42.9) 234 101 (43.2) 60 25 (41.7) 0.835
  1. Continuous variables presented as median (IQR) and categorical variables as n, (%) unless otherwise stated
  2. FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC Forced vital capacity, CAT COPD Assessment Test, EXACT EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool, PCR Polymerase chain reaction, WCC white blood cell count, CRP C-reactive protein
  3. aindicates the number of subjects with available data/samples
  4. *P-values comparing exacerbations with and without infiltrate using Mann Whitney U test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables