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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants by quintiles of bilirubin concentration

From: Association of serum bilirubin level with lung function decline: a Korean community-based cohort study

Parameters Quintile I Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 P for Trend
(n = 1534) (n = 1618) (n = 1611) (n = 1600) (n = 1623)
Bilirubin, umol/L 0.29 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.03 0.53 ± 0.04 0.68 ± 0.05 1.04 ± 0.26 < 0.001
Age, y 53.9 ± 9.0 53.1 ± 8.8 51.7 ± 8.6 51.1 ± 8.4 49.9 ± 8.4 < 0.001
Sex, male 401(26.14) 616(38.07) 750(46.55) 959(59.94) 1136(69.99) < 0.001
BMI 24.5 ± 3.2 24.7 ± 3.2 24.7 ± 3.2 24.8 ± 2.9 24.6 ± 2.9 0.539
Smoking (baseline)       < 0.001
 Continuous smoker 311(20.27) 400(24.72) 409(25.39) 454(28.38) 422(26.00)  
 Former smoker 117(7.63) 169(10.44) 241(14.96) 307(19.19) 452(27.85)  
 Never smoker 1106(72.10) 1049(64.83) 961(59.65) 839(52.44) 749(46.15)  
Pack-Y smoking 24.9 ± 18.6 24.6 ± 17.5 23.4 ± 15.8 24.5 ± 17.3 20.1 ± 15.8 < 0.001
Lung function       
 FEV1, L 2.62 ± 0.61 2.78 ± 0.66 2.93 ± 0.67 3.06 ± 0.69 3.20 ± 0.68 < 0.001
 FVC, L 3.30 ± 0.78 3.51 ± 0.85 3.70 ± 0.97 3.84 ± 0.87 4.00 ± 0.83 < 0.001
 FEV1/FVC, % 79.9 ± 7.6 79.7 ± 7.6 79.8 ± 7.5 80.2 ± 7.3 80.3 ± 7.3 0.044
 FEF25–75%, L/s 2.75 ± 1.02 2.87 ± 1.03 3.05 ± 1.10 3.20 ± 1.16 3.46 ± 4.17 < 0.001
  1. Notes: Data are presented as the number (%) or the mean ± standard deviation
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, FEF 25–75% forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity