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Table 3 Comparison of morphological, laboratorial, functional, and survival/lung transplantation data between the two groups

From: Immunohistological features related to functional impairment in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Parameters Less severe (FEV1 ≥ 75% of predicted); n = 19 More severe (FEV1 ≤ 51% of predicted); n = 12 p
Density of nodules 0.048 (0.09) 0.218 (0.26) 0.002
Density of cysts 0.337 (0.93) 1.903 (2.61) 0.001
LAM lesions/case 10 (19) 59 (84) 0.001
D2-40 0.001 (0.010) 0.008 (0.004) 0.087
MMP-9 0.011 (0.024) 0.066 (0.096) < 0.001
mTOR 0.001 (0.010) 0.013 (0.024) 0.002
VEGF-D 0.010 (0.019) 0.058 (0.067) 0.002
serum VEGF-Da (pg/mL) 821 (1273) 1411 (1468) 0.15
FEV1 (L) 2.73 ± 0.49 1.01 ± 0.41 < 0.001
FEV1 (% predicted) 95.05 ± 14.01 35.33 ± 12.60 < 0.001
DLco (ml/min/mmHg) 21.00 ± 4.95 8.09 ± 2.67 < 0.001
DLCO (% predicted) 80.26 ± 20.59 33.89 ± 11.49 < 0.001
Death n (%) 0 2 (16.6)  
Lung transplantation n (%) 0 7 (58.3)  
Referred to lung transplantation n (%) 0 3 (25)  
  1. Values are median (interquartile range) or mean ± SD or number of cases (%)
  2. DL CO diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, D2-40 podoplanin, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in the first second, MMP-9 metalloproteinase 9, mTOR mammalian target of rapamycin, VEGF-D vascular endothelial growth factor-D
  3. Density of nodules is expressed as the relation between area of nodules and lung tissue area. Density of cysts is expressed as the relation between the area of cysts and lung tissue area. Protein expression is presented as the relation between area of positive staining and lung tissue area
  4. aSerum levels of VEGF-D were available for 17 patients in the less severe group and 6 patients in the more severe group