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Table 4 Association of comorbid conditions and respective treatments with survival according to Cox proportional hazard regression models

From: Associations between comorbidities, their treatment and survival in patients with interstitial lung diseases – a claims data analysis

Variable Comorbidity-only model Drug-extended model
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Comorbidity profile Congestive heart failure treated (EI group 1) 1.53*** [1.46;1.60] 1.50*** [1.43;1.58]
Congestive heart failure untreated (EI group 1) 1.58** [1.42;1.76] 1.53*** [1.39;1.68]
Cardiac arrhythmia treated (EI group 2) 1.03n.s. [0.98;1.08] Not selected
Cardiac arrhythmia untreated (EI group 2) Not selected 1.02ns [0.95;1.08]
Valvular disease treated (EI group 3) 0.93* [0.88;0.99] 0.95 [0.89;1.00]
Valvular disease untreated (EI group 3) 1.10* [1.01;1.21] 1.13**. [1.03;1.24]
Pulmonary hypertension treated 1.40*** [1.31;1.56] 1.22*** [1.13;1.31]
Pulmonary hypertension untreated 1.43*** [1.31;1.56] 1.55*** [1.42;1.70]
Peripheral vascular disorders treated (EI group 5) 1.11*** [1.05;1.18] 1.12*** [1.05;1.18]
Peripheral vascular disorders untreated (EI group 5) 1.13*** [1.07;1.20] 1.13*** [1.07;1.20]
Hypertension without complications treated (EI group 6) 0.80** [0.73;0.88] Not selected
Hypertension without complications untreated (EI group 6) Not selected 1.00 [0.94;1.05]
Hypertension with complications treated (EI group 7) 0.86*** [0.82;0.90] 0.89** [0.83;0.95]
Hypertension with complications untreated (EI group 7) 1.01ns [0.88;1.16] 0.86*** [0.75;0.97]
COPD treated (EI group 10) 0.91*** [0.86;0.95] 0.98ns [0.94;1.03]
COPD untreated (EI group 10) 0.97ns. [0.92;1.01] Not selected
Diabetes without complications treated (EI group 11) 1.09* [1.02;1.17] Not selected
Diabetes without complications untreated (EI group 11) 1.16** [1.10;1.22] 0.99ns [0.60;1.62]
Diabetes with complications treated (EI group 12) 1.12*** [1.06;1.20] 1.03ns [0.63;1.59]
Diabetes with complications untreated (EI group 12) 1.20*** [1.12;1.30] 1.19*** [1.11;1.28]
Hypothyroidism (EI group 13) 0.89*** [0.84;0.95] 0.90*** [0.85;0.95]
Renal failure (EI group 14) 1.27*** [1.21;1.33] 1.26*** [1.20;1.32]
Liver disease (EI group 15) 1.05ns. [1.00;1.11] 1.04ns [0.99;1.10]
Metastatic carcinoma (EI group 19) 2.51*** [2.35;2.67] 2.51*** [2.36;2.68]
Solid tumour without metastasis (EI group 20) 1.15*** [1.10;1.21] 1.15*** [1.10;1.21]
Rheumatoid Arthritis/Connective Tissue Disorder (EI group 21) 0.89*** [0.84;0.95] 0.88*** [0.83;0.94]
Coagulopathy (EI group 22) 1.40*** [1.32;1.49] 1.43*** [1.35;1.52]
Obesity (EI group 23) 0.87*** [0.83;0.92 0.90*** [0.83;0.94]
Weight loss (EI group 24) 1.56*** [1.46;1.66] 1.53*** [1.44;1.63]
Fluid and electrolyte disorders (EI group 25) 1.74** [1.67;1.82] 1.70*** [1.63;1.78]
Deficiency anaemia (EI group 27) 1.11** [1.04;1.19] 1.10** [1.03;1.18]
Depression treated (EI group 31) 1.07ns [1.00;1.15] 1.00ns [0.95;1.06]
Depression untreated (EI group 31) 0.99ns. [0.93;1.04] Not selected
IHD treated 0.97ns [0.93;1.01] Not selected
IHD untreated 1.33*** [1.24;1.42] 1.04*** [0.98;1.09]
GERD treated 0.92** [0.87;0.98] 0.89*** [0.83;0.95]
GERD untreated 0.92*. [0.84;0.99] 0.95ns [0.87;1.03]
OSAS 0.76*** [0.70;0.82] 0.77*** [0.71;0.84]
Lung cancer 1.86*** [1.74;1.98] 1.80*** [1.69;1.92]
Medication intake Digitalis glycosides    1.07ns [0.99;1.16]
Anti-arrhythmic drugs    0.86* [0.75;0.98]
Diuretic drugs    1.24*** [1.18;1.31]
Statins    0.85*** [0.80;0.90]
Beta-blockers    0.92*** [0.88;0.97]
ACE inhibitors    0.83*** [0.79;0.87]
Angiotensin-I-antagonists    0.73*** [0.68;0.78]
Antiplatelet drugs    1.08* [1.02;1.15]
Heparin (−derivates)    0.84*** [0.98;1.11]
Vitamin-K antagonists    1.04ns [0.78;0.90]
Proton pump inhibitors    1.05* [1.00;1.09]
H2-antagonists    1.24** [1.07;1.43]
Treatment with anti-depressants    1.12*** [1.05;1.18
Treatment with anti-diabetic drugs    1.07ns [0.66;1.75]
Long-acting beta2 agonists (LABA)    0.98ns [0.91;1.05]
Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA)    1.05ns [1.00;1.11]
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)    0.89** [0.82;0.97]
Combination product LABA/ICS    not selected
Combination product LABA/LAMA    not selected
Specific PH drugs    1.85*** [1.56;2.18]
  1. All figures adjusted for age, gender, and ILD subtype
  2. Comorbidity-only Cox model: concordance = 0.790, R2 = 0.286; AIC = 219,409.6
  3. Drug-extended Cox model: concordance = 0.794, R2 = 0.2904; AIC = 219,215.4
  4. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, EI Elixhauser Comorbidity Index
  5. Significance codes: p < 0.001 ‘***’ | p < 0.01 ‘**’ | p < 0.05 ‘*’ | not significant ‘ns’. ‚ not selected: disregarded by LASSO selection