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Table 1 Summary of the oxidative stress biomarkers studied in different specimens of IPF patients

From: Evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and therapeutic applications: a systematic review

Biological specimens Comparison (n) Oxidative stress biomarkers Ref.
Plasma IPF (36) vs Ctrl (31) TEAC↓; PSH↔; MDA↑ 21
Plasma IPF/UIP (10) vs Ctrl (10) Hydroperoxides↑ 22
Plasma and urine IPF (29) vs Ctrl (6) Pl-isoprostanes↑; Ur-H2O2 24
Plasma and urine IPF at rest (29) vs IPF after
physical exercise (29)
Pl-isoprostanes↔; Pl-TAC↓;
Ur-isoprostanes↑; Ur-H2O2
24
Serum IPF (16) vs Ctrl (17) 8-Isoprostane↑ 25
Blood IPF (22) vs Ctrl (29) GSH↓; GSSG↑; GSH/GSSG↓ 26
Serum IPF (43) vs Ctrl (30) Hydroperoxides↑ 27
Serum AE-IPF (13) vs IPF (30) Hydroperoxides↑ 27
Plasma IIP (31-9IPF) vs Ctrl (33) TOS↑; OSI↑; TAS↔ 28
Blood and plasma IPF (10) vs Ctrl (9) Bl-GSH↓;Bl-GSSG↔; Bl-Vitamin C↔
Pl-Uric acid↔; Pl-TEAC↓
29
Breath ILD (34-13IPF) vs Ctrl (9) Ethane ↑ 30
Sputum IPF (16) vs Ctrl (15) GSH↓ 31
EBC IPF (16) vs Ctrl (15) H2O2↑; 8-isoprostane↑ 33
EBC IPF (38) vs Ctrl (14) MDA↔ 34
EBC IPF (20) vs Ctrl (20) 3NT↑; NOx↔; Proteins↑;
8-isoprostane↑;H2O2↔;
35
EBC IPF (6) vs lung cancer (6) 8-isoPGF 36
ELF IPF (44) vs Ctrl (11) MPO↑ 42
ELF IPF (15) vs Ctrl (19) tGSH↓; GSH/(GSH + GSSG) ↔ 46
ELF IPF (10) vs Ctrl (10) tGSH↓; rGSH↓ 49
ELF IPF (17) vs Ctrl (14) tGSH↓ 50
BALF IPF smokers (8) vs Ctrl smokers (6) Protein carbonyls↔ 52
BALF IPF nonsmokers (9) vs
Ctrl nonsmokers (14)
Protein carbonyls↑ 52
BALF IPF (9) vs Ctrl (5) Protein carbonyls↑ 54
BALF IPF (13) vs Ctrl (5) Protein carbonyls↑ 55
BALF IPF (15) vs Ctrl (8) Protein carbonyls↑ 56
BALF s-IPF (17) vs f-IPF (10) isocitrate dehydrogenase↓; peroxiredoxin 1↓; antithrombin III↓; complement factor B↓ 57
BALF IPF (17) vs Ctrl (14) tGSH↔ 50
BALF IPF (36) vs Ctrl (31) TEAC↓; GSH↓; GSSG↔; PSH↓; MDA↑ 21
BALF IPF (17) vs Ctrl (27) GSH↔; Uric Acid↑; Ascorbic Acid↑;
α-tocopherol↑; retinol↑; GSSG↑; F2-isoprostanes↔
58
BALF IPF (16) vs Sarcoidosis (55) 8-isoprostane↓ 25
Lung tissue IPF (10) vs Ctrl (10) ECSOD↔ 59
Lung tissue IPF fibrotic areas vs
IPF normal areas
ECSOD↓ 59
Lung tissue IPF (10) vs Ctrl (10) PrxII ↔ 60
Lung tissue IPF fibrotic areas vs
IPF normal areas
PrxII↓; 3-NT↓ 60
Lung tissue IPF (7) vs Ctrl (7) NRF2↔; SRX1↑ 61
Lung tissue IPF hyperplastic epithelium vs IPF normal epithelium NRF2↑; KEAP1↑ 61
Lung tissue IPF (14) vs Ctrl (10) GST ↓; Hp↓ 63
Lung tissue IPF (14) vs fNSIP (8) PRDX6↓; TPxB↓; 63
Lung tissue IPF (13) vs Ctrl (15) Cys↑; Gly↑; Glu↑ 64