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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects included in the study

From: Relationship of CT-quantified emphysema, small airways disease and bronchial wall dimensions with physiological, inflammatory and infective measures in COPD

  N = 122 GOLD 2 (N = 56) GOLD 3 (N = 49) GOLD 4 (N = 17) P value
Age (years) 67.0 (11.0) 67.5 (13) 67.0 (10) 65.0 (10) 0.992
Male 67 31 25 11 0.618
BMI (kg/m2) 27.1 (6.9) 27.7 (7.3) 26.5 (8.0) 25.4 (7.2) 0.054
Current smoker 46 21 18 7 0.947
Pulmonary Function
 FEV1% 47.2 (23.7) 59.1 (12.9) #^ 38.8 (10.5)*^ 26.2 (5.9)*# < 0.001
 FEV1/FVC 0.43 (0.12) 0.50 (0.10) #^ 0.38 (0.15) *^ 0.29 (0.08) *# < 0.001
 FEF75–25% 13.2 (8.3) 17.2 (6.4) #^ 11.0 (4.7) *^ 6.8 (2.2) *# < 0.001
 TLCO% 58.3 (28.7) 70.4 (23.9) #^ 53.0 (22.8)* 44.6 (11.8)* < 0.001
 RV% 144.8 (59.2) 133.8 (38.9) #^ 159.2 (48.1)* 202.7 (96.6)* < 0.001
 RV/TLC 0.54 (0.14) 0.49 (0.14) #^ 0.58 (0.10)* 0.64 (0.16)* < 0.001
Functional Markers
 6MWD (meters) 303.5 (174) 360.0 (155)^ 300.0 (156)^ 169.5 (129)*# < 0.001
 Desaturation on Exertion (%) 4.0 (5.0) 3.0 (3.0) #^ 5.0 (8.0)* 6.0 (6.5)* 0.001
Blood Measures
 Blood neutrophils (109L) 4.8 (1.6) 4.8 (1.6) 4.7 (2.0) 4.8 (1.6) 0.914
 Blood eosinophils (109L) 0.20 (0.20) 0.20 (0.20) 0.20 (0.20) 0.20 (0.20) 0.082
 Fibrinogen (g/L) 4.8 (1.1) 4.8 (1.1) 4.8 (1.0) 5.0 (1.4) 0.813
 CRP (mg/L) 5.0 (7.0) 5.0 (6.8) 4.0 (6.5) 6.0 (7.0) 0.570
 Procalcitonin (μg/L) 0.059 (0.03) 0.056 (0.02) 0.061 (0.03) 0.073 (0.05) 0.236
Sputum Differential
 Sputum Neutrophils(%) 45.9 (70.8) 17.7 (62.6) 44.3 (75.8) 71.2 (39.3) 0.110
 Sputum Eosinophils (%) 2.02 (5.2) 1.97 (4.0) 2.20 (5.7) 2.62 (4.8) 0.596
CT Measures
 Emphysema (%LAA<− 950) 12.0 (20.7) 9.6 (13.1)#^ 15.8 (26.9)* 24.8 (12.3)* < 0.001
 Bronchial wall area (Pi10) 3.80 (0.12) 3.79 (0.13) 3.78 (0.10)^ 3.84 (0.05)# 0.040
 Small airways disease (E/I MLD) 0.92 (0.07) 0.88 (0.07) #^ 0.93 (0.05)* 0.96 (0.03)* < 0.001
 Bronchiectasis 8 (6.6) 1 (1.8) 5 (10.2) 2 (11.8) 0.143
  1. Values given as medians (IQR). Males, smoking status and bronchiectasis given as number of subjects. N = 122 for whole cohort. For gas transfer n = 117, plethysmography n = 113, 6MWT parameters n = 120, blood white cells and procalcitonin n = 121, fibrinogen n = 109, sputum white cell differential n = 66. P value indicates difference between GOLD groups where < 0.05 taken as significant. * significant difference vs. GOLD 2 group, # significant difference vs. GOLD 3 group and ^ significant difference vs. GOLD 4 group