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Table 5 Patients with mild to moderate and severe asthma excluding patients with a concurrent COPD diagnosis (asthma only) and asthma patient who also have a COPD diagnosis (“Both asthma and COPD”). Age adjusted data the year after index date. Mean cumulative event indicate is presented as events/100-patient-years. “Mild to moderate A versus B” and “Severe A versus B” indicate comparisons between patients with asthma only and “Both asthma and COPD” with mild to moderate and severe asthma, respectively

From: Prevalence and management of severe asthma in primary care: an observational cohort study in Sweden (PACEHR)

  A
Asthma only (no COPD)
B
Both asthma and COPD
C
Mild to moderate A vs B Severe A vs B
Mild to moderate Severe P value Mild to moderate Severe P value P value P value
Study population, n (%) 16,007 (96.6) 558 (3.4)   1680 (88.3) 222 (11.7)    
Poor asthma control, n (%) 4250 (26.5) 283 (50.8) <0.001 743 (44.2) 130 (58.6) <0.001 <0.001 0.018
≥600 SABA, n (%) 2249 (14.0) 154 (27.7) <0.001 442 (26.3) 67 (30.1) 0.253 <0.001 0.324
Exacerbation, n (%)
Mean cumulative event
2595 (16.2) 203 (36.3) <0.001 483 (28.8) 101 (45.4) <0.001   
29.09 87.46 <0.001 76.31 152.25 <0.001 <0.001 0.001
Oral steroids, n (%)
Mean cumulative event
2566 (16.0) 203 (36.3) <0.001 481 (28.7) 100 (44.9) <0.001   
28.71 84.41 <0.001 75.06 150 <0.001 <0.001 0.006
Hospitalization, n (%)
Mean cumulative event
42 (0.3) 7 (1.2) <0.001 16 (0.9) 4 (2.0) 0.414   
0,3 2.33 <0.001 1.13 2.25 0.17 <0.001 0.035
ED visit, n (%)
Mean cumulative event
12 (0.1) 5 (0.9) <0.001 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1.000   
0.07 0.72 <0.001 0.12 0 0.996 0.529 0.478
Asthma medications, n (%) 12,247 (76.5) 525 (94.2) <0.001 1582 (94.2) 217 (97.9) 0.040 <0.001 <0.001
 Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), n (%) 6069 (37.9) 139 (24.9) <0.001 538 (32.0) 37 (16.7) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Long-acting ß2-agonists (LABA), n (%) 1992 (12.4) 97 (17.4) 0.001 352 (21.0) 30 (13.6) 0.012 <0.001 <0.001
 Fixed ICS/LABA combination, n (%) 4567 (28.5) 409 (73.3) <0.001 950 (56.6) 188 (84.7) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Long-acting anticholinergics, n (%) 260 (1.6) 29 (5.2) <0.001 669 (39.8) 120 (54.1) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Leukotriene modifiers (LTRA), n (%) 1091 (6.8) 171 (30.7) <0.001 128 (7.6) 35 (15.6) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Methylxanthines, n (%) 43 (0.3) 6 (1.0) 0.002 27 (1.6) 9 (4.0) 0.024 0.050 0.05
 Short-acting ß2-agonists (SABA), n (%) 6635 (41.5) 326 (58.5) <0.001 828 (49.3) 113 (50.9) 0.703 <0.001 <0.001
 Systemic corticosteroids (OCS), n (%) 2698 (16.9) 209 (37.5) <0.001 493 (29.4) 102 (45.8) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Omalizumab, n (%) 1 (0.0) 5 (0.9) <0.001 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1.000 1.000 1
 N-acetylcysteine, n (%) 1600 (10.0) 114 (20.4) <0.001 626 (37.3) 112 (50.5) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Primary care visits because of asthma, physician, n (%) 3491 (21.8) 153 (27.4) 0.002 291 (17.3) 44 (20.0) 0.410 0.001 0.009
 Primary care visits because of asthma, nurse, n (%) 799 (5.0) 35 (6.2) 0.207 93 (5.5) 9 (4.2) 0.446 0.604 1
 Primary care visits because of asthma, other, n (%) 418 (2.6) 23 (4.2) 0.041 98 (5.8) 19 (8.6) 0.150 <0.001 0.171
 Specialist outpatient visits because of asthma, n (%) 980 (6.1) 118 (21.1) <0.001 87 (5.2) 21 (9.7) 0.015 <0.001 0.033