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Table 1 Journal articles (n = 63) and abstracts (n = 60) identified within the literature search

From: Critical inhaler errors in asthma and COPD: a systematic review of impact on health outcomes

Study details Content details Significant association of patient characteristics with errors
Author Disease Inhaler types n Disease outcomes Quality of life Economic models Age Gender Education Previous instruction Comorbidities Socioeconomic class Concurrent device use
Al Doghim [113] A p, d 56
Al Hassan et al. [62] C p 100 × ×
Al Jahdali et al. [67] A p, p + s, d 450 × × × h
Al Somali et al. [115] C d 24
Al Zabadi and El Sharif. [152] A u 121
Ammari et al. [111] A p 30 a
Azouz et al. [153] AC p 111 ×g
Baddar and Rawas. [154] A u 218
Baddar et al. [78] A u 218 ×
Barnestein-Fonseca et al. [106] C u 220
Barthwal et al. [83] A p, p + s, d 172 a
Basheti et al. [84] A d 97 a a
Basheti et al. [24] A d 186
Batterink et al. [25] C p, p + s, d 37 ×
Bell et al. [99] AC p, pa NR
Benjamin et al. [116] AC u n/a b
Bijos et al. [129] AC u 207,801q
Bilal et al. [155] A u NR
Bryant et al. [55] AC p, p + s, d 103 × × -k
Burkhart et al. [85] A p 42
Buset et al. [71] AC u 43 × × × ×
Caliskaner et al. [156] AC u U
Camilleri et al. [80] AC p,d 167
Capanoglu et al. [53] A p + s, d 171
Capstick et al. [31] A u 25
Carpenter et al. [86] A p, p + s 91 ×
Cayo-Quiñe et al. [72] AC p 378 ×
Chorão et al. [60] AC p, pa, d, s 301 m ×
Chrystyn et al. [157] C d 127
Chrystyn et al. [37] AC d 421
Coelho et al. [38] A p, p + s, d 467 × × ×
Dalcin et al. [56] A p, d 268 × × m
Deering et al. [158] C u 24
Deerojanawong et al. [26] A p, p + s 93 l i
Elgendy et al. [95] A p 491
Estrada et al. [135] C u 108 ×n
Fernandes et al. [105] A u 89 b
Ganguly et al. [81] AC p, p + s, d 105 × × ×
Garcia-Cardenas et al. [87] A d 336 a
Giraud et al. [39] A p, pa 727 a
Giraud et al. [57] A pa 6512
Göris et al. [88] C p, d 69 a a
Groot et al. [125] A u 142 ×g
Grover et al. [96] A p + s, d 40 a
Hagmolen et al. [40] A p, p + s, d 530 × × × ×
Hämmerlein et al. [61] AC p, p + s, pa, d 757 × × ×
Harnett et al. [58] A p, d, s 46 × -d ×
Hass et al. [159] A d, s 48
Herscher et al. [160] A p,d 452
Hesselink et al. [89] AC u 276 × ×c
Khan et al. [114] AC d 50
Khassawneh et al. [82] AC p, d 300 f f f
Komase et al. [63] C d 150 × ×
Kuna et al. [97] A p 16,844
Kuprys-Lipinska et al. [100] AC d 7400 ×p
Lee et al. [66] A p, d 360 m m
Lee et al. [110] A u 92
Leiva-Fernandez et al. [161] C p, d 465
Levy et al. [90] A p, p + s, pa 3981
Lewis et al. [131] AC u 1.3 mq
Lewis et al. [132] AC d 266,657q
Lewis et al. [133] AC d 167,666q
Lewis et al. [134] AC d 409,445q
Li et al. [51] C d 384
Lin et al. [101] A u 32
Loh et al. [59] A p 134 × × × ×
Maazuddin et al. [91] AC p, p + s, d 104 a
Madkour et al. [35] AC p,d 533
Manriquez et al. [69] A p + s 263 e
Maricoto et al. [68] AC p, p + s, d 62 j ×
Maricoto et al. [104] AC u 44 j
Mazankova et al. [162] A p, pa, d 200
Mehuys et al. [41] C p, p + s, pa, d 555 d
Melani et al. [10] AC p, d 1664 × ×
Melani et al. [52] AC p, d 1527
Minai et al. [92] A p 45
Molimard et al. [42] A p, d 4362 ×g
Molimard et al. [47] p, pa, d 3811
Muhammad et al. [163] A p, p + s 181
Nama et al. [32] C u 46
Nolan-Neylan et al. [65] C d 150 × × × ×
Öztürk et al. [36] C p,d 180
Öztürk et al. [64] C d 442 e ×
Pascual et al. [54] C d 128
Plaza et al. [98] A u 230 b b
Pothirat et al. [34] C p, p + s, d 103 × × × × ×
Prieto-Centurion et al. [108] C p,d 31
Rajan et al. [43] AC d 100
Roggeri et al. [128] AC . 200q o
Roggeri et al. [127] AC u 200q o
Ronk et al. [112] A p 45
Rootmensen et al. [44] AC p, p + s, d 156 m × ×
Sadowski et al. [79] AC p, p + s, d 161
Sangita et al. [73] C p,d 100 i × i
Santos et al. [164] AC u 50
Schulte et al. [45] AC d 72
Shetty et al. [102] A p 35
Souza et al. [165] AC p, d 120
Sriram et al. [70] C u 150 × × × × ×
Sulaiman et al. [117] A u 221 b
Takemura et al. [103] A u 289 ×
Tarsin et al. [166] AC p, d 300
Thomas et al. [118] A p, d 162
Thomas et al. [50] A d 60
Torvinen et al. [130] AC d n/a
Turan et al. [76] C u 76 × × × ×
Udwadia et al. [75] A p 241 ×n ×n
van der Palen et al. [119] C p, d 567
van der Palen et al. [27] AC d 113
van der Palen et al. [28] C d 130
van der Palen et al. [46] C d 105
van der Palen et al. [93] C d 60
van der Valk et al. [107] AC d 113
Vanderman et al. [33] AC p,d 24 × × ×
Vilamil-Osorio et al. [74] A p 118 × × × ×
Voshaar et al. [29] A d 66
Westerik et al. [48] A d 623 × m
Wiacek et al. [109] AC d 7100 ×p
Wieshammer et al. [30] AC d 224 × i ×
Williams et al. [167] AC p, p + s, d 59
Wu et al. [77] AC p, d 35 × × ×
Yildiz et al. [94] A p, d 572 a
Zaidi et al. [126] AC p, p + s, d 59 ×
  1. Key: A Asthma, C COPD, AC Asthma & COPD; p pMDI, p + s pMDI with spacer, pa Breath actuated pMDI, d DPI, s Soft mist inhaler, u Unspecified,  = significant, × = non-significant
  2. Note: aSignificant improvement observed following inhaler training interventions which improved inhaler technique. bSignificant improvements in disease outcomes or QoL, or reduction in hospital admissions reported following inhaler technique intervention but did not collect inhaler error rates. cNo significant impact on QoL was reported from an intervention that significantly improved inhaler technique. dQoL impairment reported in asthma or COPD not related to inhaler errors. eAge associated only with some error types. fData on factors potentially associated with error rate was recorded, but findings were not reported. gImprovements reported but statistical analysis was not provided. hPatients who had received “education about medication” were more likely to use their inhaler properly, relative to patients who had not; however, it is not explicitly stated that this education included inhaler technique instruction. iDependent on device type. jSignificant improvements reported in asthma but not COPD. kSocioeconomic class was examined by proxy; however, no data or findings are presented on this factor or its association with errors. lData was not provided on all device types. mSignificant after univariate analysis only. nStatistical analysis was not provided. oThe two items published by Roggeri et al. are suspected to report the same economic model, and are therefore counted as one significant result in this analysis. pThe two items published by Kuprys-Lipinska et al. and Wiacek et al. are suspected to report the same study, and are therefore counted as one negative result in the disease outcomes analysis; also, improvements in disease control were reported but statistical analysis was not provided. qPopulation numbers reported for economic modelling studies marked with this symbol reflect the hypothetical patient population within the model