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Table 5 Summary of findings for secondary outcomes

From: Corticosteroid plus β2-agonist in a single inhaler as reliever therapy in intermittent and mild asthma: a proof-of-concept systematic review and meta-analysis

Comparisons Nocturnal awakenings (no.) Symptom-free days (%)
No. of Studies SMD 95% CI P value I2-squared (%) Power No. of Studies SMD 95% CI P value I2-squared (%) Power
ICS/FABA regimen vs. FABA regimen
 All 2 [17, 30] −0.290 [−0.490, −0.090] 0.004 8.7 0.96 4 [17, 27, 29, 30] 0.083 [−0.074, 0.240] 0.303 22.9 0.94
 Adult 1 [17] −0.207 [−0.461, 0.047] 0.110 0.48 2 [17, 27] 0.068 [−0.147, 0.284] 0.534 0.0 0.16
 Children and adolescent 1 [30] −0.427 [−0.752, −0.102] 0.010 0.82 2 [29, 30] 0.099 [−0.131, 0.329] 0.398 71.0 0.94
ICS/FABA regimen vs. ICS regimen
 All 2 [17, 30] −0.098 [−0.284, 0.087] 0.299 0.0 0.57 4 [17, 26, 29, 30] −0.253 [−0.373, −0.132] <0.001 0.0 0.81
 Adult 1 [17] −0.026 [−0.286, 0.234] 0.845 0.07 1 [17] −0.160 [−0.421, 0.100] 0.228 0.32
 Children and adolescent 1 [30] −0.173 [−0.438, 0.091] 0.200 0.36 3 [26, 29, 30] −0.278 [−0.414, −0.142] <0.001 0.0 0.66
ICS regimen vs. FABA regimen
 All 2 [17, 30] −0.261 [−0.465, −0.056] 0.012 0.0 0.96 3 [17, 29, 30] 0.275 [0.102, 0.448] 0.002 0.0 1.00
 Adult 1 [17] −0.212 [−0.475, 0.051] 0.115 0.47 1 [17] 0.249 [−0.015, 0.512] 0.064 0.56
 Children and adolescent 1 [30] −0.335 [−0.658, −0.011] 0.043 0.64 2 [29, 30] 0.295 [0.065, 0.525] 0.012 40.8 0.99
Comparisons Rescue medication required per day FEV1% of predicted value
No. of Studies SMD 95% CI P value I2-squared (%) Power No. of Studies SMD 95% CI P value I2-squared (%) Power
ICS/FABA regimen vs. FABA regimen
 All 5 [17, 27,28,29,30] −0.138 [−0.290, 0.014] 0.076 18.0 0.98 3 [17, 27, 29] 0.773 [0.105, 1.441] 0.023 91.3 1.00
 Adult 3 [17, 27, 28] −0.226 [−0.429, −0.023] 0.029 0.0 0.52 2 [17, 27] 0.405 [0.188, 0.623] <0.001 0.0 0.94
 Children and adolescent 2 [29, 30] −0.025 [−0.254, 0.205] 0.834 46.0 0.34 1 [29] 1.429 [1.064, 1.794] <0.001 1.00
ICS/FABA regimen vs. ICS regimen
 All 5 [17, 26, 28,29,30] 0.192 [0.075, 0.309] 0.001 16.2 1.00 2 [17, 29] −0.061 [−0.629, 0.506] 0.832 86.3 0.96
 Adult 2 [17, 28] 0.097 [−0.141, 0.335] 0.424 0.0 0.20 1 [17] 0.219 [−0.042, 0.480] 0.100 0.50
 Children and adolescent 3 [26, 29, 30] 0.222 [0.088, 0.356] 0.001 49.5 0.91 1 [29] −0.360 [−0.691, −0.030] 0.033 0.68
ICS regimen vs. FABA regimen
 All 4 [17, 28,29,30] −0.152 [−0.318, 0.014] 0.073 0.0 0.87 2 [17, 29] 0.415 [−0.102, 0.933] 0.001 83.2 1.00
 Adult 2 [17, 28] −0.227 [−0.468, 0.014] 0.065 0.0 0.56 1 [17] 0.161 [−0.101, 0.424] 0.229 0.33
 Children and adolescent 2 [29, 30] −0.084 [−0.313, 0.014] 0.471 55.1 0.53 1 [29] 0.690 [0.356, 1.024] <0.001 0.99
  1. no. number, SMD standardized mean difference, CI confidence interval, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, FABA fast-onset-acting β2-agonist, ICS/FABA inhaled corticosteroids/fast-onset-acting β2-agonist