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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Corticosteroid plus β2-agonist in a single inhaler as reliever therapy in intermittent and mild asthma: a proof-of-concept systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables Haahtela 2006 [27] Papi 2007 [17] Papi 2009 [30] Martinez 2011 [29] Lazarinis 2014 [28] Fitzpatrick 2016 [26]
Countries Finland and Sweden Multinational Italy USA Sweden and Norway USA
Study design Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel trial Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel trial Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel trial Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel trial Randomized, double-blind, parallel trial Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover trial
Duration (weeks) 24 24 12 44 6 16
Diagnostic criteria of asthma GINA The EPR-2 guideline Frequent wheezinga The EPR-3 guideline GINA The EPR-3 guideline
Asthma severity Intermittent Mild Mild Mild Mild Mild
Intervention ICS/FABA regimen, budesonide/formoterol, 1 inhalation, 160/4.5 μg each as-needed; FABA regimen, formoterol, 1 inhalation, 4.5 μg, as-needed ICS/FABA regimen, beclomethasone/salbutamol, 1 inhalation, 250/100 μg each, as-needed; FABA regimen, salbutamol, 1 inhalation, 100 μg each, as-needed; ICS regimen, beclomethasone, 1 inhalation, 250 μg each, twice daily ICS/FABA regimen, beclomethasone/salbutamol, 1 vial nebulization, 800/1600 μg each, as-needed; FABA regimen, salbutamol, 1 vial nebulization, 2500 μg each, as-needed
ICS, beclomethasone, 1 vial nebulization, 400 μg each, twice daily
ICS regimen, beclomethasone (HFA), 2 inhalations, 40 μg each, twice daily or as-needed; FABA regimen, salbutamol, 2 inhalations, 90 μg each, as-needed ICS/FABA regimen, budesonide/formoterol, 1 inhalation, 200/6 μg each, as-needed; FABA regimen, terbutaline, 1 inhalation, 500 μg each, as-needed; ICS regimen, budesonide, 1 inhalation, 400 μg each, once daily ICS regimen, fluticasone propionate, 2 inhalations, 44 μg each, twice daily or as-needed; FABA regimen, salbutamol, 2 inhalations, 90 μg each, as-needed
Adherence of daily ICS NA 91.62% 99.4% 85% 98.25% 96%
Beclomethasone equivalent consumption (μg/day, Mean ± SD)
 ICS/FABA 162.8 110 ± 150.3 179.8 ± 256 30 203.75 ± 100 77.14
 ICS 458.1 ± 103.3 795.2 ± 81 170 491.25 ± 15 342.86
Number of patients
 ICS/FABA 45 122 110 74 23 NA
 FABA 47 118 56 74 22 NA
 ICS 106 110 72 21 NA
 Total 92 346 276 220 66 300
Age (years, mean ± SD)
 ICS/FABA 34.8 ± 19.9 36.8 ± 13.1 2.26 ± 0.79 10.4 ± 2.8 31 ± 12 NA
 FABA 36.5 ± 12.1 40.6 ± 13.8 2.29 ± 0.78 10.4 ± 3.2 28 ± 12 NA
 ICS 37.9 ± 13.5 2.35 ± 0.81 10.8 ± 3.5 26 ± 10 NA
 Total NA NA NA NA NA 3.325 ± 1.1
Sex (% female)
 ICS/FABA 66 59 38.2 48 39 NA
 FABA 72 58.5 39.3 45 72 NA
 ICS 57.5 41.8 42 52 NA
 Total NA NA NA NA NA 40.3
Number of dropout
 ICS/FABA 1 22 4 13 1 18b
 FABA 5 18 3 24 0
 ICS 17 2 9 3 12b
  1. ICS inhaled corticosteroids, FABA fast-onset-acting β2-agonist, ICS/FABA inhaled corticosteroids/fast-onset-acting β2-agonist
  2. aFrequent wheezing defined as a documented history of at least three episodes of wheezing requiring medical attention in the previous 6 months
  3. bTreatment failure criteria were met in a single 16-week treatment arm