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Table 7 Logistic regression bivariate analysis (adherence to good clinical practice criteria in three categories: clinical evaluation of the patient, COPD evaluation and therapeutic interventions)

From: Variability in adherence to clinical practice guidelines and recommendations in COPD outpatients: a multi-level, cross-sectional analysis of the EPOCONSUL study

Patients Clinical evaluation ≥ 3 criteria fulfilled OR (95%CI) p Centers Clinical evaluation ≥ 3 criteria fulfilled OR (95% CI) p
Age (≤55 years) 1.01 (0.78–1.31) 0.89 Large hospital 0.44 (0.21–0.89) 0.024
Sex (male) 0.96 (0.78–1.17) 0.70 University hospital 0.32 (0.12–0.82) 0.018
Active smokers 1.25 (1.05–1.48) 0.011 Beds per center ≥500 0.57 (0.27–1.22) 0.152
Dyspnea (MRC-m)    Respiratory ward not available Reference  
 0–1    Respiratory ward <20 beds 0.90 (0.24–3.32) 0.876
 ≥2 Reference   Respiratory ward ≥20 beds 0.51 (0.19–1.35) 0.178
 Missing 1.02 (0.83–1.26) 0.797    
 Level of dyspnea not referred to 0.24 (0.19–0.31) <0.001    
0.11 (0.09–0.15) <0.001    
FEV1< 50% 1.24 (1.07–1.43) 0.004 Number of pulmonology staff members ≥ 5 0.80 (0.35–1.86) 0.620
Charlson index ≥ 3 1.45 (1.25–1.69) <0.001 Pulmonology residents present 0.90 (0.41–1.99) 0.806
Number of hospital admissions in the last year ≥ 1 6.45 (5.16–8.07) <0.001 Number of annual outpatient respiratory visits ≥ 10,000 0.45 (0.17–1.19) 0.109
GesEPOC phenotype    ≥ 15 min of follow-up at general outpatient respiratory visit 2.34 (1.13–4.83) 0.021
 Non-exacerbator Reference     
 Exacerbator 1.26 (1.00–1.59) 0.048    
 Missing 0.40 (0.33–0.49) <0.001    
Triple inhalation therapy 1.01 (0.87–1.17) 0.872 Specialized COPD outpatient clinic available 1.07 (0.51–2.22) 0.850
Treatment at a specialized COPD outpatient clinic 2.49 (1.91–3.23) <0.001 Outpatient respiratory nursing clinic availability 2.47 (1.23–4.97) 0.011
    Inhalation technique educational program available 1.61 (0.73–3.55) 0.234
Patients COPD evaluation ≥4 criteria fulfilled OR (95%CI) p Centers COPD evaluation ≥4 criteria fulfilled OR (95%CI) p
Age (≤55 years) 1.68 (1.31–2.14) <0.001 Large hospital 1.25 (0.66–2.39) 0.484
Sex (male) 0.75 (0.61–0.92) 0.006 University hospital 1.16 (0.49–2.74) 0.729
Active smokers 1.01 (0.82–0.85) 0.824 Beds per center ≥500 1.65 (0.85–3.20) 0.136
Dyspnea (MRC-m)    Respiratory ward not available Reference  
 0–1    Respiratory ward <20 beds 4.23 (1.39–12.86) 0.011
  ≥2 Reference   Respiratory ward ≥20 beds 2.23 (0.96–5.19) 0.062
 Missing 1.53 (1.28–1.84) <0.001    
 Level of dyspnea not referred to 0.51 (0.38–0.68) <0.001    
0.54 (0.41–0.69) <0.001    
FEV1<50% 1.80 (1.55–2.08) <0.001 Number of pulmonology staff members ≥5 1.44 (0.69–3.00) 0.324
Charlson index ≥3 0.80 (0.69–0.92) 0.003 Pulmonology residents present 1.69 (0.85–3.37) 0.129
Number of hospital admissions in the last year ≥1 1.30 (1.10–1.55) 0.002 Number of annual outpatient respiratory visits ≥10,000 1.82 (0.78–4.25) 0.165
GesEPOC phenotype    ≥ 15 min of follow-up at general outpatient respiratory visit 1.06 (0.54–2.09) 0.845
 Non-exacerbator Reference    
 Exacerbator 1.38 (1.13–1.69) 0.001   
 Missing 0.16 (0.13–0.20) <0.001   
Triple inhalation therapy 1.37 (1.18–1.60) <0.001 Specialized COPD outpatient clinic available 1.77 (0.94–3.31) 0.073
Treatment at a specialized COPD outpatient clinic 4.44 (3.48–5.68) <0.001 Outpatient respiratory nursing clinic availability 1.57 (0.83–2.95) 0.158
    Inhalation technique educational program available 1.91 (0.97–3.75) 0.058
Patients Therapeutic intervention ≥3 criteria fulfilled OR (95%CI) p Centers Therapeutic intervention ≥3 criteria fulfilled OR (95%CI) p
Age (≤55 years) 0.62 (0.44–0.87) 0.007 Large hospital 0.46 (0.16–1.25) 0.130
Sex (male) 0.79 (0.61–1.02) 0.074 University hospital 0.32 (0.08–1.17) 0.087
Active smokers 0.98 (0.80–1.20) 0.894 Beds per centre ≥500 0.78 (0.27–2.25) 0.656
Dyspnea (MRC-m)    Respiratory ward not available Reference  
 0–1 Reference   0.26 (0.04–1.66) 0.158
  ≥2 1.10 (0.90–1.35) 0.317 Respiratory ward <20 beds 0.32 (0.08–1.19) 0.090
 Missing 0.09 (0.05–0.15) <0.001 Respiratory ward ≥20 beds   
 Level of dyspnea not referred to 0.24 (0.17–0.34) <0.001    
FEV1<50% 1.32 (1.07–1.63) 0.008 Number of pulmonology staff members ≥5 0.41 (0.13–1.27) 0.125
Charlson index ≥3 1.23 (1.04–1.46) 0.016 Pulmonology residents present 0.87 (0.29–2.61) 0.813
Number of hospital admissions in the last year ≥1 1.83 (1.50–2.23) 0.000 Number of annual outpatient respiratory visits ≥10,000 0.29 (0.08–1.06) 0.062
GesEPOC phenotype    ≥ 15 min of follow-up at general outpatient respiratory visit 1.09 (0.37–3.20) 0.862
 Non-exacerbator Reference    
 Exacerbator 1.10 (0.87–1.38) 0.414   
 Missing 0.37 (0.30–0.46) <0.001   
Triple inhalation therapy 1.02 (0.85–1.21) 0.812 Specialized COPD outpatient clinic available 2.14 (0.79–5.79) 0.133
Treatment at a specialized COPD outpatient clinic 2.95 (2.28–3.83) <0.001 Outpatient respiratory nursing clinic availability 3.36 (1.27–8.84) 0.014
    Inhalation technique educational program available 3.55 (1.25–10.07) 0.017