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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the audited cases

From: Variability in adherence to clinical practice guidelines and recommendations in COPD outpatients: a multi-level, cross-sectional analysis of the EPOCONSUL study

  Patients (N = 4508) Hospitals (N = 59) p
N % or median (IQR) Median IQR
Sex (male), (%) 4.508 86 87.5 82.1–93.2 < 0.001
Age (years), median (P25–75) 4.508 69.7 (63–77.7) 70 69–72 < 0.001
  ≤ 55 (%)   8.5 8.2 5.8–11.7
 56–69 (%)   38.7 38.1 30–42.6
  ≥ 70 (%)   52.8 53.3 47.1–61.7
Pack-years, median (P25–75) 4.508 47 (34–70) 45 40–51 < 0.001
Active smokers, (%) 4.508 23.1 22 18–29 < 0.001
BMI kg/m2, median (P25–75) 4.508 28.0 (24.4–31.1) 27.8 26.6–28.5 0.03
  ≤ 21 (%)   7.1 6.7 4.1–9.2
 22–29 (%)   60.8 58.8 56.1–64
  ≥ 30 (%)   32.1 31.4 26.2–37.7
Charlson index, median (P25–75) 4.508 2 (1–4) 2 2–3 < 0.001
  ≥ 3 (%)   44.9 44.5 40–56.6
Dyspnea (MRC-m) 4.508     < 0.001
 0 + 1 (%)   27.3 23.8 11.6–44.5
  ≥ 2 (%)   41.4 38.3 28.3–54
 Missing (%)   13.2 8.9 1.6–21.6
 Level of dyspnea not referred to (%)   18.1 11.6 3.3–30
CAT questionnaire >10, (%) 869 62.4 64 47.9–83.8 < 0.001
Chronic bronchitis criteria, (%) 4.508 41.7 41 28.3–51 < 0.001
Chronic colonization, (%) 4.508 6.0 5 3.2–8.3 < 0.001
Symptoms suggestive of asthma,(%) 4.508 26.5 18.3 10.8–35 < 0.001
% FEV1, median (P25–75) 4.508 50 (37–63) 51 47–54 0.03
  <  50%   49.1 45.5 41.5–53.3
 50–64%   28 28.5 22.3–31.7
  ≥ 65%   22.9 23.8 15–30
Number of moderate/severe exacerbations in the last year, median (P25–75) 3.196 1.1 (0–2) 1 0–1 0.03
Number of hospital admissions in the last year, median (P25–75) 4508 0.5 (0–1) 0 0–0 0.03
BODE value, median (P25–75) 632 3.9 (3–5) 4.5 3–5.5 < 0.001
GOLD group 985     < 0.001
 A (%)   22.7 14.3 0–25.9
 B (%)   18.7 16.7 0–24.1
 C (%)   18.7 20 9.8–33.3
 D (%)   39.9 40 23.5–55.6
GesEPOC Phenotype 4.508     < 0.001
 - Non-exacerbator, (%)   27.5 24.4 11.4–28
 - Exacerbator, (%)   18.8 15.7 3.4–22
 - Missing, (%)   53.7 52.3 44–58.9
LAMA monotherapy, (%) 4.391 10.0 10 4.8–15.3 0.03
LAMA-LABA combination, (%) 4.391 22.7 20.3 14.5–27.9 < 0.001
LABA+ ICS combination, (%) 4.391 7.7 6.7 3.4–9.8 0.03
Triple therapy (LAMA + LABA + CSI), (%) 4.391 49.1 50.8 39.3–60.3 < 0.001
Long-term oxygen therapy, (%) 4.508 26.6% 25 17.1–33.3 0.03
Home ventilation, (%) 4.508 7.5% 5 2.5–11.6 < 0.001
Respiratory rehabilitation, (%) 4.508 9 5 0–11.8 < 0.001
Respiratory care follow-up (years), (%) 4.508 4 (2–7) 4 3.5–5 0.03
  1. Dichotomous variables are expressed as n and percentage. Average value expressed as median (P25–75). The variability was expressed using the interquartile range (IQR) of median. Calculated for the variability between centers using test de Kruskal–Wallis or chi-square test, depending on the nature of the variable
  2. Abbreviations: LABA long-acting beta-2 agonists, LAMA long-acting antimuscarinic agents, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, GesEPOC Spanish National Guidelines for COPD, CAT COPD Assessment Test