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Table 1 Characteristics of the participating hospitals and resources of the respiratory units

From: Variability in adherence to clinical practice guidelines and recommendations in COPD outpatients: a multi-level, cross-sectional analysis of the EPOCONSUL study

  All Small hospital Large hospital P
Number of participating hospitals, n 59 27 32  
Public hospital (%) 93.2 85.2 100 0.039
University hospital (%) 83.1 63 100 <  0.001
Beds per center ≥ 500 (%) 62.7 18.5 100 < 0.001
Beds per center, median (P25–75) 651 (349–943) 332 (231–436) 903 (702–1199) < 0.001
Hospital with a respiratory ward (%) 83.1 63 100 < 0.001
Number of inpatient respiratory beds ≥ 20 (%) 83.7 52.9 100 < 0.001
Number of pulmonology staff members ≥ 5 (%) 81.4 59.3 100 < 0.001
Number of pulmonology staff members, median (P25–75) 10 (5–13) 5 (2–8) 13 (10–16) < 0.001
Pulmonology residents available (%) 67.8 33.3 96.9 < 0.001
Number of annual outpatient respiratory visits, median (IQR) 15,447 (12004–25,680) 12,004 (4355–13,556) 23,985 (16070–27,838) < 0.001
Number of annual outpatient respiratory visits ≥ 10,000 (%) 81.4 59.3 100 < 0.001
≥ 15 min of follow-up at general outpatient respiratory visit (%) 44.1 48.1 40.6 0.562
Specialized COPD outpatient clinic available (%) 47.5 40.7 53.1 0.343
≥ 15 min of follow-up at specialized COPD outpatient visit (%) 64.4 74.1 56.3 0.154
Outpatient respiratory nursing clinic availability (%) 45.8 44.4 46.9 0.852
Functional respiratory laboratory available (%)
 - Spirometry 100 100 100 1
 - Diffusing capacity 100 100 100 1
 - Plethysmography 100 100 100 1
 - Respiratory muscle strength 84.7 66.7 100 < 0.001
 - 6MWT available 94.9 88.9 100 0.090
 - Cardiopulmonary exercise testing available 62.7 40.7 81.3 0.001
Inhalation technique educational program available (%) 30.5 15.6 48.1 0.007
Respiratory rehabilitation program available (%) 74.6 66.7 81.3 0.2
 - Hospital-based 61.4 61.1 61.5 0.617
 - Home-based 6.8 11.1 3.8  
 - Mixed 31.8 27.8 34.6  
  1. Data are presented as median (CI 95%), unless stated otherwise. Dichotomous variables are expressed as number and/or percent. p calculated by the Kruskal–Wallis or Chi-square test, depending on the nature of the variable