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Table 3 Reduced STATCOPE development cohort model. Time-dependent multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses for risk of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and bilirubin prior to first AECOPD

From: Serum bilirubin and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations

Parameter aHR 95% CI p-value
STATCOPE Reduced Development Cohort Model
 Treatment assignment 0.92 0.77–1.11 0.38
 Male sex 0.86 0.72–1.04 0.12
 Black race 0.66 0.51–0.84 <0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.98 0.97–1.00 0.02
 Chronic bronchitis 1.17 0.97–1.42 0.11
 Supplemental oxygen use 1.37 1.12–1.67 0.002
 SGRQ score 1.02 1.01–1.02 <0.001
 Inhaler usea - none (0 of 3 classes: LABA, LAMA, ICS) 0.52 0.36–0.76 0.007
 Inhaler usea - 1 of 3 classes 0.91 0.68–1.22 0.12
 Inhaler usea - 2 of 3 classes 0.72 0.58–0.90 0.51
 Steroid or antibiotic use in year prior to enrollment 1.62 1.22–2.16 0.001
BILIRUBIN (per log 10 increase) 0.89 0.74–1.09 0.26
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, LABA long-acting beta agonist, LAMA long-acting antimuscarinic, SGRQ St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire
  2. aReferent group is 3-class inhaler therapy (long-acting beta agonist, long-acting antimuscarinic, and inhaled corticosteroid)
  3. Bilirubin is presented in bold, as this was the primary predictor variable