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Table 2 Full STATCOPE development model. Time-dependent multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses for risk of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and bilirubin prior to first AECOPD

From: Serum bilirubin and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations

Parameter aHR 95% CI p-value
STATCOPE Full Development Cohort Model
 Treatment assignment 0.93 0.77–1.11 0.41
 Age 1.00 0.99 to 1.01 0.69
 Male sex 0.84 0.69–1.01 0.07
 Black race 0.66 0.51–0.86 0.002
 BMI, kg/m2 0.99 0.97–1.00 0.07
 Chronic bronchitis 1.22 1.00–1.49 0.05
 Supplemental oxygen use 1.26 1.02–1.58 0.04
 SGRQ score 1.02 1.01–1.02 <0.001
 Inhaler usea - none (0 of 3 classes: LABA, LAMA, ICS) 0.57 0.39–0.84 0.02
 Inhaler usea - 1 of 3 classes 0.96 0.72–1.29 0.10
 Inhaler usea - 2 of 3 classes 0.74 0.59–0.93 0.40
 Steroid or antibiotic use for AECOPD in year prior to enrollment 1.52 1.13–2.05 0.006
 Hospitalized for AECOPD in year prior to enrollment 1.13 0.92–1.39 0.25
 Ethanol use, drinks/day 0.99 0.88–1.10 0.79
 FEV1, % predicted 1.00 0.99–1.00 0.19
 Current smoker 0.84 0.66–1.05 0.13
BILIRUBIN (per log 10 increase) 0.90 0.74–1.09 0.28
  1. Abbreviations: AECOPD acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI body mass index, ED emergency department, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in one second, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, LABA long-acting beta agonist, LAMA long-acting antimuscarinic, SGRQ St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire
  2. aReferent group is 3-class inhaler therapy (long-acting beta agonist, long-acting antimuscarinic, and inhaled corticosteroid)
  3. Bilirubin is presented in bold, as this was the primary predictor variable