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Table 5 Comorbidities and their association with survival after adjustment for age, smoking status, gender and DLco% or CPI

From: Effect of smoking and comorbidities on survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

   Multivariate with DLco%a Multivariate with CPI a
  N(%) HR (95 % CI) p-value HR (95 % C I) p-value
Cardiovascular diseases b 96 (72.7) 1.6 (1.01 – 2.52) 0.047 1.5 (0.94 – 2.38) 0.086
Coronary artery disease 65 (49.2) 1.4 (0.92 – 2.05) 0.124 1.4 (0.93 – 2.10) 0.109
Hypertension 60 (45.5) 1.0 (0.69 – 1.52) 0.900 1.0 (0.67 – 1.47) 0.955
Heart failure c 36 (27.2) 0.8 (053 – 1.25) 0.339 0.8 (0.53 – 1.27) 0.378
Cerebral infarction 13 (9.8) 0.8 (0.40 – 1.44) 0.395 0.9 (0.45 – 1.63) 0.638
TIA 8 (6.1) 1.1 (0.48 – 2.66) 0.778 1.2 (0.52 – 2.89) 0.648
Diabetes 35 (26.5) 1.3 (0.82 – 2.11) 0.256 1.4 (1.03 – 1.07) 0.198
OSA 6 (4.5) 0.5 (0.22 – 1.20) 0.121 0.5 (0.21 – 1.59) 0.105
GER 14 (10.6) 0.9 (0.49 – 1.74) 0.799 0.9 (0.46 – 1.64) 0.661
Asthma 21 (15.9) 1.6 (0.92 – 2.78) 0.098 1.5 (0.89 – 2.66) 0.126
COPD 10 (7.6) 2.5 (1.02 – 6.01) 0.045 1.8 (0.78 – 4.27) 0.163
Lung cancer 9 (6.8) 1.0 (0.48 – 2.15) 0.965 0.9 (0.43 – 1.92) 0.808
Depression 10 (7.6) 0.9 (0.43 – 2.06) 0.880 0.8 (0.39 – 1.81) 0.654
Medications
 Statins 56 (42.4) 1.3 (0.85 – 2.06) 0.215 1.4 (0.91 – 2.25) 0.121
 Beta-blockers 57 (43.2) 0.9 (0.58 – 1.35) 0.566 0.9 (0.59 – 1.39) 0.643
 GER medication 13 (9.8) 0.9 (0.48 – 1.71) 0.752 1.2 (0.64 – 2.28) 0.556
 ACE inhibitors or angiotensin 1 antagonists 48 (36.4) 1.4 (0.94 – 2.04) 0.103 1.1 (0.70 – 1.66) 0.737
 Anticoagulants 15 (11.4) 1.1 (0.59 – 1.89) 0.849 0.7 (0.39 – 1.37) 0.332
 Platelet function drugs d 58 (43.9) 1.2 (0.77 – 1.88) 0.420 1.3 (0.82 – 2.04) 0.277
 Inhaled corticosteroids 12 (9.1) 1.4 (0.71 – 2.83) 0.327 1.0 (1.03 – 1.07) 0.290
 Antidiabetic drugs e 22 (16.7) 1.6 (0.88 – 2.84) 0.123 1.7 (0.94 – 3.03) 0.082
 Insulin 9 (6.8) 2.4 (0.95 – 6.24) 0.063 2.8 (1.07 – 7.09) 0.036
 Thyroid medication 16 (12.1) 0.9 (0.49 – 1.81) 0.858 1.0 (0.50 – 1.90) 0.946
 Allopurinol 4 (3.0) 0.8 (0.18 – 3.21) 0.717 0.6 (0.14 – 2.37 ) 0.439
  1. N number, SD standard deviation, 95 % C I 95 percent confidence interval, HRCT high resolution computed tomography, UIP usual interstitial pneumonia, TIA transient ischemic attack, OSA obstructive sleep apnea, GER gastro-esophageal reflux, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. aAdjusted for age, gender and smoking history and DLco% or CPI
  3. bCoronary artery disease, hypertension and cerebral infarction
  4. cHeart failure for any reason
  5. dAcetylsalicylic acid, dipyridamole and clopidogrel
  6. eMetformin, glimepiride and sitagliptin