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Table 1 Sample description (n = 1311)

From: Prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers: a study on 1311 subjects

Variables   Categories % Group AHI < 15/h Group AHI ≥ 15/h P-value Chi2
Gender   Male (n = 692) 52.78% 47.21% 87.36% <0.001
Female (n = 619) 47.22% 52.79% 12.64%
Snoring   No (n = 646) 49.28% 54.30% 18.13% <0.001
Yes (n = 665) 50.72% 45.70% 81.87%
Metabolic syndrome   No (n = 1199) 91.46% 93.98% 75.82% <0.001
Yes (n = 112) 8.54% 6.02% 24.18%
Benzodiazepines use   No (n = 1080) 82.34% 82.02% 84.62% 0.394
Yes (n = 231) 17.62% 17.98% 15.38%
Z-drugs use   No (n = 1210) 92.30% 91.94% 94.51% 0.228
Yes (n = 101) 7.70% 8.06% 5.49%
Antidepressant therapy   No (n = 918) 70.02% 69.26% 74.73% 0.136
Yes (n = 393) 29.98% 30.74% 25.27%
Smoking   No (n = 1013) 77.27% 77.24% 77.47% 0.944
Yes (n = 298) 22.73% 22.76% 22.53%
Alcohol   No (n = 1010) 77.04% 78.74% 66.48% <0.001
Yes (n = 301) 22.96% 21.26% 33.52%
Insomnia maintenance   No (n = 785) 59.88% 38.97% 47.25% 0.034
Yes (n = 526) 40.12% 61.03% 52.75%
  Mean ± SD      t-test
BMI (kg/m2) 26.92 ± 5.74    26.21 ± 5.47 31.31 ± 5.45 <0.001
   <25 (n = 570) 43.48% 49.07% 8.79%  
≥25 & <30 (n = 411) 31.35% 30.56% 36.26%  
≥30 (n = 330) 25.17% 20.37% 54.95%  
Age (years) 45.09 ± 12.41    43.78 ± 11.88 53.23 ± 12.55 <0.001
   <50 (n = 871) 66.44% 70.41% 41.75%  
≥50 & <65 (n = 376) 28.68% 26.31% 43.41%
≥65 (n = 64) 4.88% 3.28% 14.84%
  Median (P25-P75)      Wilcoxon test
CRP (mg/L) 1.5 (0.75 – 3.2)    1.4 (0.70 – 3) 2.1 (1 – 4.4) <0.001
   ≤7 (n = 1223) 93.29% 94.15% 87.91%  
>7 (n = 88) 6.71% 5.85% 12.09%
BDI 6 (3 – 11)    7 (3 – 11) 5 (3 – 9) <0.001
   ≤8 (n = 826) 63.01% 61.29% 73.62%  
>8 & <16 (n = 327) 24.94% 25.51% 21.43%
≥16 (n = 158) 12.05% 13.20% 4.95%
Epworth 10 (6 – 14)    6 (10 – 13) 11 (8 – 14) <0.001
   ≤10 (n = 713) 54.39% 56.33% 42.31%  
>10 (n = 598) 45.61% 43.67% 57.69%
ISI 18 (16 – 21)    19 (16 – 21) 18 (16 – 20) <0.001
   <15 (n = 178) 13.58% 12.75% 18.68%  
≥15 & <21 (n = 748) 57.06% 56.42% 60.99%
≥21 (n = 385) 29.37% 30.82% 20.33%
AHI 1 (2 – 7)    2 (1 – 4) 30 (21 – 52) <0.001
   <15/h (n = 1129) 86.12%    
≥15/h (n = 182) 13.88%
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, AHI Apnea-Hypopnea Index, ISI Insomnia Severity Index