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Table 1 Patient baseline characteristics by early pulmonary rehabilitation and differential distance

From: Outcomes after early and delayed rehabilitation for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide retrospective cohort study in Japan

  Delayed pulmonary rehabilitation Early pulmonary rehabilitation Standardized difference (%)
(n = 8459) (n = 4113)  
Age (y), mean (SD) 77.9 (9.5) 79.4 (9.3) 15.9
Sex (female), n (%) 1646 (19.5) 709 (17.2) 5.7
Pre-admission within 180 days, n (%) 1951 (23.1) 902 (21.9) 2.7
Japan Coma Scale, n (%)    4.5
 Alert 6415 (75.8) 3070 (74.6)  
 Dull 1453 (17.2) 745 (18.1)  
 Somnolence 339 (4.0) 190 (4.6)  
 Coma 252 (3.0) 108 (2.6)  
Body mass index, n (%)    4.1
  < 18.5 2896 (34.2) 1476 (35.9)  
 18.5–22.9 2817 (33.3) 1362 (33.1)  
 23.0–24.9 701 (8.3) 340 (8.3)  
 25.0–29.9 560 (6.6) 257 (6.2)  
  ≥ 30 115 (1.4) 55 (1.3)  
 Missing 1370 (16.2) 623 (15.1)  
Smoking index, mean (SD) 701 (1420) 758 (1857) 3.4
Barthel index, n (%)    4.8
 0 2935 (34.7) 1400 (34.0)  
 5–9 962 (11.4) 460 (11.2)  
 10–14 1068 (12.6) 580 (14.1)  
 15–19 488 (5.8) 253 (6.2)  
 20 1209 (14.3) 566 (13.8)  
 Missing 1797 (21.2) 854 (20.8)  
Hugh-Jones dyspnoea scale score, n (%)    16.2
 0 1212 (14.3) 706 (17.2)  
 1 310 (3.7) 203 (4.9)  
 2 628 (7.4) 381 (9.3)  
 3 787 (9.3) 392 (9.5)  
 4 1886 (22.3) 937 (22.8)  
 5 3044 (36.0) 1287 (31.3)  
 Missing 592 (7.0) 207 (5.0)  
Charlson comorbidity index, n (%)    7.5
 0–1 5202 (61.5) 2677 (65.1)  
 2–3 2839 (33.6) 1247 (30.3)  
  ≥ 4 418 (4.9) 189 (4.6)  
Intensive care unit admission, n (%) 694 (8.2) 398 (9.7) 5.2
Oxygen intake at admission, n (%) 5895 (69.7) 2904 (70.6) 2
Intubation at admission, n (%) 364 (4.3) 116 (2.8) 8
Steroid dose (mg), mean (SD) 222 (653) 188 (549) 5.6
Hospital volume, mean (SD) 215 (132) 233 (131) 13.9
Population density of patient living area (persons/km2), n (%)    
  < 250 1281 (15.1) 632 (15.4) 1.2
  ≥ 250 7133 (84.4) 3462 (84.9)  
 Missing 45 (0.5) 19 (0.5)  
Distance between patient residence and hospital (km), mean (SD) 6.8 (20.8) 7.7 (34.4) 3.2
Differential distance, n (%)    31.5
 0 km 3782 (44.7) 1226 (29.8)  
  > 0 km 4592 (44.3) 2554 (69.4)  
 Missing 85 (1.0) 33 (0.8)  
Total pulmonary rehabilitation session (hours), mean (SD) 7.6 (11.9) 8.5 (12.3) 7.4
Duration of pulmonary rehabilitation (days), mean (SD) 19.2 (21.5) 17.4 (18.5) 9.0
  1. SD standard deviation