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Table 2 Diagnostic value of HA in MPM

From: CD44 and its ligand hyaluronan as potential biomarkers in malignant pleural mesothelioma: evidence and perspectives

Function Method/specimen Reference
HA is associated with malignant tumor of the pleura Enzymatic analysis/pleural fluid Meyer and Chaffee. 1940 [85]
HA proposed as a diagnostic tool Electrophoresis/Pleural fluids Boersma et al. 1975 [91]
HA as a major GAG confirms MPM diagnosis Electrophoresis/MPM and other tumor tissues Waxler et al. 1979 [94]
High HA is a clinical finding in MPM GAG-degrading enzyme assay/pleural tissues Arai et al. 1979 [36]
Increased total GAG aids in differential diagnosis between diffuse MPM and ADC IHC/MPM tissues Kawai et al. 1985 [95]
HA indicates diffuse MPM Colorimetric assay/pleural fluids Matzel and Schubert. 1979 [93]
HA aids in differential diagnosis between MPM and primary ADC Electrophoresis/MPM and other tumor tissues Chiu et al. 1984 [87]
Increased HA level is associated with tumor damage IHC/pleural effusions Thylen et al. 1999 [88]
Dahl et al. 1989 [35]
HA is an indicator for MPM HPLC/pleural and peritoneal effusions Roboz et al. 1985 [86]
Increased serum HA indicates progressive MPM Radiometric assay/patient serum Frebourg et al. 1987 [34]
Dahl et al. 1984
Thylen et al. 1994
HA and chondroitin sulfate are basic features of MPM IHC/tumor tissues and pleural fluids Nakano et al. 1986 [96]
Positive HA staining highly predictive of MPM HA-binding probe/MPM and ADC tissues Azumi et al. 1992 [90]
Presence of HA distinguishes MPM from ADC IHC, HPLC/pleural effusion and tumor tissues Klominek et al. 1989 [89]
Attanoos et al. 1997 [80]
High HA with CEA aid in differential diagnosis of MPM Radiometric assay/Pleural fluids and patient serum Atagi et al. 1997 [92]
Pettersson et al. 1988 [33]
Increased HA-binding in pleural effusion cells serves as additional diagnostic marker [3H] hyaluronate binding assay/primary cell cultures Teder et al. 1996 [99]
High intracellular HA delineates MPM from ADC IHC/serous fluids Afify et al. 2005 [81]
Increased HA level is not specific for MPM diagnosis ELISA assay/Pleural effusions and serum Hillerdal et al. 1991 [98]
Combination of HA and cytology may improve diagnosis of MPM Immunoassay and IHC/pleural effusions Welker et al. 2007 [97]
HA >100 000 ng/ml recommended as diagnostic indicator for MPM ELISA assay pleural fluids of MPM and other tumors Fujimoto et al. 2013 [31]
High HA is associated with MPM IHC/MPM tissues Töronnen et al. 2016 [83]
  1. MPM malignant pleural mesothelioma, ADC adenocarcinoma, HA hyaluronic acid, GAG glycosaminoglycan, IHC immunohistochemistry, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, HPLC high pressure liquid chromatography