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Table 2 Unadjusted healthcare utilization, costs and health-related quality of life

From: Costs and health-related quality of life in Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficient COPD patients

Healthcare utilization Subgroups
A B B1 B2
(n = 2049) (n = 131) (n = 106) (n = 25)
 Outpatient services (3 months)
   General practitioner
   % User 76 66 64 76
   Number of visits 1.9 (2.3) 3.8 (4.8) 4.1 (5.0) 2.7 (3.7)
   Specialists
   % User 94 96 96 96
   Number of visits 4.4 (4.4) 8.9 (7.4) 9.6 (7.0) 5.9 (8.5)
   Ambulant hospital visits
   %User 16 18 18 16
   Number of visits 0.3 (1.5) 0.7 (3.0) 0.8 (3.3) 0.2 (0.4)
 Inpatient services (12 months)
   % User 39 24 24 24
   Number of visits 0.6 (1.1) 0.3 (0.8) 0.4 (0.9) 0.3 (0.5)
   Duration of stay 5.8 (14.1) 2.3 (5.8) 2.2 (5.7) 2.7 (6.3)
 Rehabilitation (12 months)
   Ambulant
   % User 2 4 3 8
   Number of visits 0.5 (4.2) 0.6 (3.1) 0.5 (2.8) 1.16 (4.0)
   Stationary
   % User 14 21 22 16
   Duration of stay 3.3 (8.8) 5.2 (10.9) 5.4 (10.6) 5.0 (12.3)
 Physiotherapist (12 months)
   %User 35 52 51 56
   Number of visits 7.1 (18.5) 15.2 (23.6) 15.2 (24.1) 14.9 (22.1)
 Medication (7 days)
  Number of prescribed medications (without AT) 6.1 (3.2) 4.7 (2.7) 4.7 (2.6) 4.4 (3.1)
 Direct costs (12 months)
  Outpatient costs 938 (834) 2160 (1547) 2423 (1559) 1044 (857)
  Inpatient costs 3441 (8302) 1341 (3394) 1285 (3337) 1579 (3687)
  Rehabilitation 433 (1086) 674 (1327) 675 (1293) 666 (1487)
  Physiotherapist 118 (307) 252 (393) 253 (400) 247 (368)
  Medication costs 2533 (3327) 1961 (1076) 2056 (1080) 1558 (976)
  Medication costs including AT 2533 (3327) 60427 (28718) 74311 (1080) 1558 (976)
 Total direct costs 7446 (9836) 6374 (4535) 6675 (4202) 5096 (5655)
  Total direct costs incl. AT 7446 (9836) 64840 (29467) 78930 (4202) 5096 (5655)
Indirect costs (participants < 65 years) Subgroups
A B B1 B2
(n = 897) (n = 82) (n = 69) (n = 13)
 Work absenteeism (12 months)
  % retired 47 35 37 23
  % employed 38 55 54 62
  % thereof with sick days (12 months) 73 67 59 100
  Number of sick days 30.8 (50.9) 24.8 (46.7) 24.2 (50.1) 27.6 (28.0)
 Indirect costs (12 months)
  Costs due to sick days (HC) 5452 (9015) 4395 (8278) 4287 (8882) 4895 (4965)
  Costs due to sick days (FC) 2541 (2585) 2161 (2392) 1935 (2374) 3208 (2338)
  Premature retirement (HC) 17508 (18543) 13129 (17859) 13989 (18123) 8568 (16280)
 Total indirect costs (HC) 19514 (17615) 15541 (17231) 16288 (17595) 11580 (15155)
 Total indirect costs (FC) 935 (1989) 1186 (2069) 1038 (1982) 1974 (2413)
Health-related Quality of Life Subgroups
A B B1 B2
(n = 2049) (n = 131) (n = 106) (n = 25)
SGRQ 44.0 (20.0) 44.8 (17.2) 46.6 (16.4) 37.5 (20.2)
CAT 18.3 (7.4) 18.6 (6.7) 18.9 (6.6) 17.2 (7.3)
EQ-5D-3 L utility 81.5 (20.7) 83.2 (19.1) 83.0 (19.1) 83.9 (19.4)
EQ-5D VAS 56.2 (19.4) 56.4 (19.0) 54.4 (18.8) 63.6 (18.75)
  1. Data are mean (standard deviation) or percentage (%)
  2. A = COPD patients without Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), B = COPD patients with AATD, B1 = COPD patients with augmentation therapy (AT), B2 = COPD patients with AATD but without AT, HC = human capital approach, FC = friction costs approach
  3. Number of visits is including all participants, also those who have 0 visits
  4. Total direct and indirect costs differ from the sum score calculated from the single categories due to differences in n between the single categories. EQ-5D-3 L utility is displayed after multiplication with 100
  5. Total direct costs do not include AT costs of approximately €72,000