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Table 1 Subject’s characteristics (N = 484; 199 males (41.1%, 285 females (58.9%), age-range (9.1–87.1 years

From: Diagnostic accuracy of methacholine challenge tests assessing airway hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients - a multifunctional approach

  Asthmatic patients n = 337 Non-asthmatic subjects
n = 147
Upper airway Cough syndrome (UACS) Gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Chronic Cough (smoking, post-infection, unknown) Symptom complex (dyspnea, chest tightness, hyperventilation, somatisation) All non-asthmatic subjects
n (% distribution) 337 (69.6) 55 (37.4) 40 (27.2) 30 (20.4) 22 (15.0) 147 (30.4)
Gender male/female (% distribution) 129/208 (38.3/61.7) 26/29 (47.3/52.7) 18/22 (45.0/55.0) 18/12 (60.0/40.0) 8/14 (36.4/63.6) 70/77 (47.6/52.4)
Age in years (mean ± SD) (age-range) 41.3 ± 18.9 (9.1-87.1) 47.0 ± 17.0 (10.6-80.5) 55.0 ± 15.3 (26.3-83.1) 55.2 ± 17.3 (15.9-82.8) 40.4 ± 18.4 (13.9-72.9) 49.9 ± 17.5 (10.6-82.8)
Functional Characteristics of plethysmographic measurements assessed by z-scores n (% within group)
Normal LF 280 (83.1) 42 (76.4) 31 (77.5) 26 (86.7) 19 (86.4) 118 (80.3)
Pulmonary hyperinflation (PHI) 28 (8.3) 12 (21.8) 7 (17.5) 2 (6.7) 3 (13.6) 24 (16.3)
Bronchial obstruction (O) 26 (7.7) 1 (1.8) 2 (5.0) 0 0 3 (2.0)
PHI and O 3 (0.9) 0 0 2 (6.7) 0 2 (1.4)
Functional Characteristics of spirometric measurements assessed by z-scores by plethysmography n (%)
Normal F-V curve 305 (90.5) 50 (36.9) 40 (100) 29 (96.7) 19 (86.4) 138 (93.9)
Flow limitation (FL) 26 (7.7) 5 (9.1) 0 1 (3.3) 3 (13.6) 9 (6.1)
SAD 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 0 0 (0)
FL & SAD 5 (1.53) 0 0 0 0 0
  1. LF lung function, PHI pulmonary hyperinflation (FRCpleth > 1.645 SD), O airway obstruction (sGeff < 1.645 SD), F-V flow-volume, FL flow-limitation (FEV1 < −1.645 SD), SAD small airway dysfunction (FEF50 < − 1.645 SD)