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Table 1 Characteristics of study sample

From: The impact of comorbidities on productivity loss in asthma patients

  Study population = 284
Age, mean ± SDa 47.8 ± 11.8
Sex (%)
 Women 193 (68)
 Men 91 (32)
Household income (%)
 High (>60,000 CAD) 178 (62.7)
 Low 96 (33.8)
 Missing 10 (3.5)
Educational level (%)
 High 229 (80.6)
 Low 55 (19.4)
Place of birth (%)
 Canada 207 (72.9)
 Outside Canada 77 (27.1)
Ethnicity (%)
 Caucasian 231 (81.3)
 Asian 18 (6.3)
 Other 35 (12.4)
Residence type (%)
 Urban 260 (91.5)
 Rural 24 (8.5)
Asthma medication adherence (%)
 PDCb < 50 % 171 (60.2)
 50 % ≤ PDC < 80 % 31 (11)
 PDC ≥ 80 % 81 (28.5)
 Missing 1 (0.3)
Asthma control level (%)
 Controlled 55 (19.4)
 Partially Controlled 113 (39.8)
 Uncontrolled 115 (40.5)
 Missing 1 (0.3)
Productivity Loss (%) 136 (48)
Absenteeism (%) 49 (17)
Presenteeism (%) 127 (45)
Hours of overall productivity loss, mean ± SD 16 ± 17.6
Costsc of overall productivity loss, mean ± SD 317.49$ ± 858.83$
Overall SCQd comorbidities score, mean ± SD 2.47 ± 2.97
Heart disease (%) 15 (5.3)
Hypertension (%) 35 (12.3)
Diabetes (%) 9 (3.2)
Ulcer or Stomach Disease (%) 37 (13)
Kidney disease (%) 3 (1.1)
Liver disease (%) 2 (0.7)
Anemia or other blood disease (%) 21 (7.4)
Cancer (%) 6 (2.1)
Depression (%) 40 (14.1)
Osteoarthritis, degenerative arthritis (%) 62 (21.8)
Back pain (%) 99 (34.9)
Rheumatoid arthritis (%) 2 (0.7)
  1. aStandard deviation
  2. bproportions of days covered
  3. c2010 Canadian dollars
  4. dself-administered comorbidity questionnaire