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Fig. 1 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 1

From: Metformin attenuates lung fibrosis development via NOX4 suppression

Fig. 1

Metformin inhibits myofibroblast differentiation through AMPK activation in LF. a Western blotting (WB) using anti-type I collagen, anti-α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), and anti-β-actin of cell lysates from control (lane 1, 2), metformin (1 mM) (lane 3, 4), and metformin (10 mM) (lane 5, 6) treated LF. Metformin treatment was started 1 h before TGF-β (2 ng/ml) stimulation and protein samples were collected after 24 h treatment with TGF-β. In the right panels are the average (±SEM) taken from three independent experiments shown as relative expression. Open bar is control and filled bar is TGF-β treated. *p < 0.05. b WB using anti-phospho-AMPK, anti-αSMA, and anti-β-actin of cell lysates from control (lane 1, 2) and metformin (10 mM) (lane 3, 4) treated LF. Metformin treatment was started 1 h before TGF-β (2 ng/ml) stimulation and protein samples were collected after 24 h treatment with TGF-β. In the right panels are the average (±SEM) taken from three independent experiments shown as relative expression. Open bar is control and filled bar is TGF-β treated. *p < 0.05. c WB using anti-type I collagen, anti-αSMA, anti-phospho-AMPK, and anti-β-actin of cell lysates from control siRNA (lane 1, 2, 3, 4) and AMPK siRNA (lane 5, 6, 7, 8) transfected LF. Metformin treatment was started 48 h post transfection and 1 h before TGF-β (2 ng/ml) stimulation. Protein samples were collected after 24 h treatment with TGF-β. The right panels show the average (±SEM) of type I collagen and αSMA relative expression, which were taken from five to six independent experiments, respectively. Open bar is control and filled bar is TGF-β treated. *p < 0.05

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