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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and comparison between hospital survivors and non-survivors in patients admitted to ICU with pneumonia

From: Risk factors for mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units with pneumonia

Characteristics Total patients (n = 667)a Hospital non-survivors (n = 149)b Hospital survivors (n = 518)c P-value
Baseline variables
 Age (year): mean (SD) 60.7 (15.95) 68.4 (13.80) 58.5 (15.85) <0.001d
 Female: n (%) 292 (43.78) 54 (36.24) 238 (45.95) 0.035e
 BMI (kg/m2): mean (SD) 28.2 (7.71) 27.7 (7.44) 28.3 (7.78) 0.36d
 APACHE II score: mean (SD) 21.3 (7.53) 24.6 (7.36) 20.4 (7.32) <0.001d
 Medical admission: n (%) 650 (97.45) 147 (98.67) 503 (97.10) 0.29e
 History of malignancy: n (%) 30 (4.50) 11 (7.38) 19 (3.67) 0.054e
 End-stage renal disease: n (%) 10 (1.50) 5 (3.36) 5 (0.97) 0.034f
 Chronic hepatic failure: n (%) 7 (1.05) 1 (0.67) 6 (1.16) 0.61f
 Chronic respiratory disease: n (%) 117 (17.54) 39 (26.17) 78 (15.06) 0.002e
 Chronic heart failure: n (%) 27 (4.05) 13 (8.72) 14 (2.70) 0.001e
 Immunocompromise: n (%) 98 (14.69) 28 (18.79) 70 (13.51) 0.11e
 Personal or family history of venous thromboembolism: n (%) 28 (4.20) 4 (2.68) 24 (4.63) 0.30f
Intervention within the first 24 h on admission: n (%)
 Inotropes/vasopressors 284 (42.58) 78 (52.35) 206 (39.77) 0.006e
 Mechanical ventilation 621 (93.10) 140 (93.96) 481 (92.86) 0.64e
 Dialysis 21 (3.15) 11 (7.38) 10 (1.93) 0.001e
 Red blood cell transfusion 37 (5.55) 13 (8.72) 24 (4.63) 0.054e
 Central venous catheterization 532 (79.76) 133 (89.26) 399 (77.03) 0.001e
 Acetylsalicylic acid or clopidogrel 169 (25.34) 54 (36.24) 115 (22.20) 0.001e
 Statins 104 (15.59) 28 (18.79) 76 (14.67) 0.22e
 Stress ulcer prophylaxis 584 (88.35) 135 (91.84) 449 (87.35) 0.14e
 Erythropoietin-stimulating agents 5 (0.76) 2 (1.35) 3 (0.59) 0.35f
 Activated protein C 7 (1.05) 2 (1.35) 5 (0.97) 0.69f
  1. ICU intensive care unit, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation
  2. aMedian follow-up: 16 days, interquartile range: 10–29
  3. bMedian follow-up: 15 days, interquartile range: 8–26
  4. cMedian follow-up: 17 days, interquartile range: 10–30
  5. dStudent’s t-test
  6. eChi-square test
  7. fFisher’s exact test