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Fig. 2 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 2

From: Airway epithelial cell exposure to distinct e-cigarette liquid flavorings reveals toxicity thresholds and activation of CFTR by the chocolate flavoring 2,5-dimethypyrazine

Fig. 2

2,5-Dimethylpyrazine reduces the physiological response to cellular signaling critical in airway innate immunity. a 16HBE14o- cells display cytotoxic cellular impedance responses to 2,5-dimethylpyrazine at 0.6 % and higher. b A 24 h exposure to subcytotoxic concentrations of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine causes a concentration-dependent signaling response to forskolin in 16HBE14o- cells. c A 24 h exposure to subcytotoxic concentrations of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine results in a reduction in 16HBE14o- signaling response to ATP. At subcytotoxic concentrations, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine evoked a physiological response at concentrations as low as 0.06 % v/v and dampened the response to cellular signaling key in airway epithelial innate immunity

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