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Table 1 Univariate analysis performed in the derivation sample (n = 1252)

From: A decision tree to assess short-term mortality after an emergency department visit for an exacerbation of COPD: a cohort study

  30-day mortality 60-day mortality
No Yes No Yes
1206 (96.3 %) 46 (3.7 %) 1173 (93.7 %) 79 (6.3 %)
Agea 72.5 (9.8) 77.7 (8.6)* 72.3 (9.8) 77.3 (8.9)*
Sex (Male) 1105 (91.6) 42 (91.3) 1075 (91.7) 72 (91.1)
Baseline FEV1 %   **   
   ≥50 42 (4.2) 0 (−) 40 (4.1) 2 (3.0)
   30 < FEV1 % < 50 295 (29.4) 6 (14.6) 286 (29.2) 15 (22.7)
   ≤30 666 (66.4) 35 (85.4) 652 (66.7) 49 (74.2)
Charlson Comorbidity Indexa 2.22 (1.52) 3.11 (2.23)* 2.19 (1.50) 3.15 (2.00)*
   >2 374 (31.0) 24 (52.2)** 351 (29.9) 47 (59.5)*
Diabetes mellitus 238 (19.8) 19 (41.3)* 230 (19.7) 27 (34.2)**
Cardiopathy 345 (28.6) 24 (52.2)** 327 (27.9) 42 (53.2)*
Previous LT-DOT or NIMV at home 380 (31.5) 34 (73.9)* 367 (31.3) 47 (59.5)*
Number of previous admissions due to eCOPD 0.85 (1.38) 1.04 (1.28) 0.84 (1.38) 1.08 (1.37)
   0-1 970 (80.4) 35 (76.1) 445 (80.6) 60 (76.0)
   2 103 (8.5) 2 (4.4) 101 (8.6) 4 (5.1)
   ≥3 133 (11.0) 9 (19.6) 127 (10.8) 15 (19.0)
Glasgow Coma Score – <15 32 (2.7) 7 (15.2)* 30 (2.6) 9 (11.4)*
Heart rate upon ED arrival (≥120) 104 (8.6) 8 (17.4) 99 (8.4) 13 (16.5)
Use of inspiratory accessory muscle upon ED arrival 256 (21.2) 23 (50.0)* 252 (21.5) 27 (34.2)**
Paradoxical breathing upon ED arrival 52 (4.3) 9 (19.6)* 48 (4.1) 13 (16.5)*
pH upon ED arrival   *   **
   ≥7.35 986 (88.6) 30 (68.2) 958 (88.4) 58 (79.5)
   7.26-7.34 106 (9.5) 8 (18.2) 105 (9.7) 9 (12.3)
   <7.26 21 (1.9) 6 (13.6) 21 (1.9) 6 (8.2)
PCO2 upon ED arrival   *   *
   ≤45 613 (58.5) 10 (23.3) 596 (58.4) 27 (38.0)
   46-55 233 (22.2) 14 (32.6) 226 (22.2) 21 (29.6)
   56-65 111 (10.6) 9 (20.9) 109 (10.7) 11 (15.5)
   >65 91 (8.7) 10 (23.3) 89 (8.7) 12 (16.9)
MRC breathlessness scale   *   *
   1-2 404 (33.5) 2 (4.4) 401 (34.2) 5 (6.3)
   3 227 (18.8) 3 (6.5) 220 (18.8) 10 (12.7)
   4 329 (27.3) 11 (23.9) 319 (27.2) 21 (26.6)
   5 119 (9.9) 19 (41.3) 109 (9.3) 29 (36.7)
   missing 127 (10.5) 11 (23.9) 124 (10.6) 14 (17.8)
  1. aRepresented as mean (sd)
  2. Statistically significant differences between deceased and not deceased patients at each period of time for each characteristic are shown, *stands for p < 0,001 and **stands for 0.05 < p < 0.001