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Table 3 Respiratory Symptoms and Disease in Subjects With and Without History of Childhood Pneumonia

From: Childhood pneumonia increases risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the COPDGene study

  Childhood Pneumonia No Childhood Pneumonia Impact of Childhood Pneumoniab
  N = 854 (8.4 %) N = 9302 (91.6 %) OR (95 % CI) or β (SE)c p Valued
Chronic bronchitis (%) 214 (25.1 %) 1730 (18.6 %) 1.40 (1.18, 1.66) <0.001e
Number of COPD exacerbations in past year (SD) 0.65 (1.2) 0.36 (0.9) 0.18 (0.03) <0.001f
Had a severe COPD exacerbation in past year (%) 140 (16.4 %) 1063 (11.4 %) 1.28 (1.04, 1.58) 0.02f
Cardiovascular Disease (%)a 179 (21.0 %) 1455 (15.6 %) 1.20 (1.00-1.44) 0.047
Diagnosed with asthma by healthcare provider (%)a 239 (28.0 %) 1508 (16.3 %) 2.15 (1.83, 2.53) <0.001
Childhood asthma (%)a 137 (16.0 %) 586 (6.3 %) 3.30 (2.68, 4.05) <0.001
SGRQ Score, Total (SD)a 32.4 (24.0) 26.9 (22.8) 2.32 (0.67) <0.001g
MMRC Dyspnea Scale, 0-4 (SD)a 1.6 (1.5) 1.3 (1.4) 0.12 (0.04) 0.006g
  1. Abbreviations: COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SD standard deviation; SGRQ St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; MMRC Modified Medical Research Council
  2. aSubjects included are fewer than total subjects due to subject survey response being missing or unclassifiable
  3. bEach row represents a separate regression model
  4. cOdds ratio (OR), 95 % confidence interval (CI) for logistic regression; beta coefficient (β), standard error (SE) for linear regression
  5. dCovariates for all analyses = age at enrollment in years + gender + race + pack-years
  6. fAdditional covariates: ecurrent smoker; current smoker & FEV1 % predicted; gFEV1 % predicted