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Table 2 Effect of COPD exacerbation on biomarkers in human sputum and serum

From: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are associated with decreased CD4+ & CD8+ T cells and increased growth & differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) in peripheral blood

   Sputum    Serum  
Biomarker Stable (pg/mL) Exacerbation (pg/mL) P-value Stable (pg/mL) Exacerbation (pg/mL) P-value
CCL2 462.1 ± 595.5 631.5 ± 960.4 0.52 373.6 ± 186.8 372.7 ± 227.0 1.0
CCL3 41.9 ± 27.5 58.0 ± 42.6 0.35 80.6 ± 35.8 86.7 ± 39.6 0.41
CCL4 110.8 ± 89.7 138.6 ± 116.4 0.64 128.9 ± 52.2 134.2 ± 57.3 0.64
CCL5 16.6 ± 4.0 16.9 ± 2.9 0.50 8,636 ± 2,200 8,500 ± 2,561 0.83
CCL7 16.3 ± 2.9 20.3 ± 11.5 0.44 61.1 ± 38.9 73.6 ± 56.9 0.40
CCL8 Not detected Not detected   15.5 ± 3.8 16.5 ± 7.6 0.89
CCL11 Not detected Not detected   79.7 ± 41.1 67.8 ± 56.7 0.06
CRP 8355 ± 12659 43812 ± 58313 0.004 0.58 ± 0.40 mg/L 6.37 ± 7.50 mg/L 0.0005
CXCL9 748.4 ± 863.8 641.5 ± 765.7 0.97 75.2 ± 32.8 84.9 ± 32.7 0.22
CXCL10 150.1 ± 101.2 568.4 ± 799.5 0.20 40.7 ± 8.9 67.8 ± 76.2 0.30
ENA-78 1544 ± 2243 573.5 ± 814.7 0.43 366.4 ± 278.8 435.6 ± 340.5 0.73
E-Selectin Not detected Not detected   4.5x104 ± 1.9x10 4.9x104 ± 1.7x104 0.72
GDF-15 ND ND   1,806 ± 1,558 2,295 ± 1,527 0.03
GRO-α 65.1 ± 72.5 52.7 ± 47.0 0.76 34.8 ± 31.1 43.7 ± 42.7 0.23
sICAM-1 1,370 ± 1,256 1,135 ± 1,118 0.81 2.6x105 ± 1.1x105 3.5x105 ± 1.0x105 0.004
IFN-α Not detected Not detected   Not detected Not detected  
IFN-β Not detected Not detected   802.9 ± 1096 1015.7 ± 1376 0.13
IFN-γ Not detected Not detected   Not detected Not detected  
IL-1β 20.3 ± 29.7 309.2 ± 567.2 0.15 Not detected Not detected  
IL-1R1 ND ND   Not detected Not detected  
IL-1R2 ND ND   Not detected Not detected  
IL-1ra 34.9 ± 70 36.2 ± 54.7 0.43 Not detected Not detected  
IL-6 117.1 ± 108.2 225.9 ± 193.5 0.16 11.9 ± 16.0 43.7 ± 103.6 0.21
sIL-6R Not detected Not detected   3.8x104 ± 1.3x104 4.0x104 ± 2.2x104 0.90
IL-8 3.7x106 ± 2.6x106 5.5x106 ± 4.3x106 0.16 33.7 ± 27.3 56.6 ± 40.0 0.16
IL-10 6.6 ± 4.7 27.6 ± 79.3 0.85 156.1 ± 299 260.0 ± 392 0.04
IL-15 Not detected Not detected   0.7 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 5.0 0.004
IL-17 Not detected Not detected   Not detected Not detected  
IL-18 40.7 ± 57.6 57.6 ± 100.3 0.99 20.9 ± 9.7 27.2 ± 13.3 0.18
IL-23 p19 Not detected Not detected   Not detected Not detected  
MMP-9 ND ND   8.1x105 ± 4.8x105 10.8x105 ± 5.9x105 0.37
MMP-12 9,758 ± 21,460 10,129 ± 19,529 0.85 ND ND  
MPO 2.0x105 ± 1.2x105 2.5x105 ± 0.6x105 0.46 6.05x105 ± 4.4x105 5.6x105 ± 4.3x105 0.70
TIMP-1 381.4 ± 66.3 280.7 ± 72.9 0.016 8,973 ± 2,847 9,769 ± 2,185 0.42
TIMP-2 60.5 ± 26.1 116.9 ± 63.0 0.031 8,508 ± 13,251 8,958 ± 7,733 0.66
TIMP-3 Not detected Not detected   1,488 ± 979 1,313 ± 794 0.83
TIMP-4 Not detected Not detected   155.2 ± 69.3 125.1 ± 51.8 0.42
TNF-α ND ND   10.7 ± 5.8 16.9 ± 23.1 0.31
sTNFR1 14,681 ± 29,002 8,669 ± 15,039 0.96 1,829 ± 979 2,011 ± 570 0.27
sTNFR2 4,692 ± 6,700 9,140 ± 15,732 0.38 9,881 ± 5,189 10,488 ± 4,189 0.45
sVCAM-1 ND ND   1.4x106 ± 0.4x106 1.8x106 ± 0.3x106 0.014
VEGF Not detected Not detected   Not detected Not detected  
  1. Data are shown as mean ± SD in pg/mL unless otherwise indicated; ND: not done