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Table 3 Estimated nonparametric relative effects showing intergroup differences as probabilities

From: Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation characterises stable and exacerbated COPD and correlates with airflow limitation

  Smoking controls omitted Smoking controls included
  FEV1 Non-activated neutrophils NET-forming neutrophils NETs NET covered area FEV1 Non-activated neutrophils NET-forming neutrophils NETs NET covered area
Exacerbated COPD 0.27908 0.52941 0.56471 0.72680 0.75098 0.20931 0.53676 0.56225 0.75686 0.79363
Stable COPD 0.41690 0.45798 0.50280 0.49020 0.47479 0.31968 0.46534 0.50035 0.53081 0.52276
Smoking controls       0.76254 0.47794 0.50735 0.38408 0.36808
non-smoking controls 0.83725 0.52941 0.43137 0.28693 0.28431 0.74559 0.53676 0.42892 0.33137 0.32402
COPD grades 3/4 0.27669 0.51089 0.56100 0.64670 0.64089 0.20752 0.51825 0.55855 0.68192 0.68818
COPD grades 1/2 0.60784 0.41830 0.43137 0.41503 0.43682 0.47222 0.42565 0.42892 0.45425 0.47794
Smokong controls       0.76254 0.47794 0.50735 0.38408 0.36808
Non-smoking controls 0.83725 0.52941 0.43137 0.28693 0.28431 0.74559 0.53676 0.42892 0.33137 0.32402
  1. Evaluation of study data with a closed testing procedure performing multiple hypothesis tests simultaneously, significant endpoints in bold. Summary of estimated nonparametric relative effects of tested variables with and without inclusion of the smoking controls. Estimated relative effects measure the probability that a value obtained from one experimental group is larger than a value randomly chosen from the whole trial including the controls. The procedure yields similar conclusions about the significance of differences between study groups and between COPD severity groups, irrespective of whether smoking controls are excluded or included