Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Participant characteristics across four sites in Peru (p-values calculated using Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables, and chi-squared or Fisher exact tests for categorical variables)

From: Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru

  Lima Urban Puno Rural Puno Tumbes Overall P
  998 (33.8) 507 (17.2) 506 (17.1) 946 (32.0) 2957  
Age in years, median (IQR) 54.7 (45.5, 64.0) 54.8 (44.9, 64.5) 54.8 (45.1, 63.9) 54.9 (45.0, 64.8) 54.8 (45.2, 64.3) 0.87
Number of males (%) 492 (49.3) 250 (49.3) 240 (47.4) 475 (50.2) 1457 (49.3) 0.80
Height in m, median (IQR) 1.54. (1.49, 1.61) 1.57 (1.50, 1.63) 1.55 (1.49, 1.62) 1.58 (1.52, 1.65) 1.56 (1.50, 1.63) <0.001
BMI >30 kg/m 2 , n (%) 324 (32.5) 133 (26.4) 54 (10.8) 299 (31.6) 810 (27.5) <0.001
Daily smoking, n (%) 32 (3.2) 11 (2.2) 1 (0.2) 53 (5.6) 97 (3.3) <0.001
Rural origin, n (%) 510 (51.2) 103 (20.5) 481 (96.4) 285 (30.2) 1379 (46.9) <0.001
Wealth index, n (%)       
 Low 119 (11.9) 120 (23.9) 356 (70.4) 307 (32.5) 902 (30.6) <0.001
 Middle 366 (36.7) 129 (25.7) 136 (26.9) 387 (40.9) 1018 (34.5)  
 High 513 (51.4) 254 (50.5) 14 (2.8) 252 (26.6) 1033 (35.0)  
Exposures, n (%)       
 Daily use of biomass fuels for cooking 61 (6.1) 25 (5.0) 483 (96.6) 221 (23.4) 790 (26.8) <0.001
 Cooks indoors 573 (57.8) 436 (86.7) 453 (90.8) 497 (53.0) 1959 (66.8) <0.001
Clinical, (%)       
 History of tuberculosis 69 (6.9) 3 (0.6) 7 (1.4) 7 (0.7) 86 (2.9) <0.001
 History of asthma 82 (8.2) 13 (2.6) 3 (0.6) 16 (1.7) 114 (3.9) <0.001
 Family History of asthma 146 (24.7) 18 (3.6) 8 (1.6) 51 (7.9) 223 (10.0) <0.001
 Family History of COPD 4 (0.7) 4 (0.8) 0 0 8 (0.4) 0.04