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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants

From: Imbalance of dendritic cell co-stimulation in COPD

  Never-smoker (N) Smoker (S) COPD (C) S vs. N C vs. N C vs. S
n = 21 n = 21 n = 54 p-value p-value p-value
Age (years) 63 [50–79] 61 [51–75] 59 [40–85] 0.337 0.274 0.859
Gender (male/female) 12/9 13/8 33/21 0.753 0.753 0.949
BMI (kg/m2) 26 [21–32] 29 [18–39] 25 [15–41] <0.05 0.683 <0.05
Waist circumference (cm) 90 [66–125] 101 [72–115] 91 [64–130] <0.05 0.432 0.102
Pack-years (PY) 0 [0–0] 39 [23–69] 38 [5–80] <0.001 <0.001 0.262
Smoking status (NS/CS) 0 / 21 21 / 0 12 / 42 <0.001 <0.05 <0.001
LAMA/LABA/ICS (No. treated) 0/0/0 0/0/0 51/50/31 NA <0.001* <0.001*
THEO/ROF/OCS (No. treated) 0/0/0 0/0/0 12/8/10 NA <0.05** <0.05**
mMRC 0 [0–1] 0 [0–2] 2 [1–4] 0.076 <0.001 <0.001
CAT 4 [0–14] 7 [1–20] 24 [7–35] 0.050 <0.001 <0.001
FEV 1 (Liters) 3.2 [1.9-5.1] 2.9 [1.8-3.9] 1.0 [0.5-2.4] 0.113 <0.001 <0.001
FEV 1 (% predicted) 112 [84–133] 98 [66–124] 38 [16–75] <0.01 <0.001 <0.001
FEV 1 %FVC (%) 81 [73–86] 80 [71–94] 49 [28–69] 0.521 <0.001 <0.001
MEF 50 (% predicted) 81 [45–148] 75 [29–123] 12 [5–33] 0.122 <0.001 <0.001
RV (% predicted) 99 [29–145] 107 [64–141] 199 [76–347] 0.119 <0.001 <0.001
TLC (% predicted) 103 [71–120] 98 [68–127] 118 [79–164] 0.571 <0.001 <0.001
  1. Parameters are displayed as median values [minimum…maximum]. Abbreviations denote: Long-acting muscarinergic antagonist (LAMA), Long-acting Beta-agonist (LABA), Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), Theophyllin (THEO), Roflumilast (ROF), Oral corticosteroid (OCS), modified Medical research council (mMRC), COPD assessment test (CAT), Inspiratory vital capacity (IVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first one second (FEV1), ratio of the FEV1 to the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC (MEF50), residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC), Non-Smoker (NS), Current Smoker (CS). The columns on the right side of the table show comparisons between the groups: Asymptomatic smokers (S), never-smokers (N), patients with COPD (C). *p < 0.001 for the differences in medication with LAMA, LABA and ICS. **p < 0.05 for differences in medication with OCS and Theophyllin.