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Table 2 Assessment of cardiac function by echocardiography

From: Effects of exercise training on pulmonary vessel muscularization and right ventricular function in an animal model of COPD

  Fresh air Cigarette smoke Significance
  Sedentary Exercise Sedentary Exercise F1 F2 I
Heart Rate (stroke/min) 485 ± 30 443 ± 52 444 ± 35 458 ± 33 .27 .26 .024
FS (%) 33.4 ± 3.6 36.5 ± 3.7 35.0 ± 4.0 36.8 ± 6.2 .51 .075 (.63)
LV S’ (mm/s) 21.2 ± 3.4 21.6 ± 3.0 19.6 ± 3.6 19.7 ± 3.8 .11 .84 (.93)
LV E’ (mm/s) 31.3 ± 3.8 33.0 ± 4.3 29.6 ± 6.8 30.2 ± 3.9 .16 .50 (.73)
IVRT (ms) 16.4 ± 1.4 14.1 ± 1.7 16.5 ± 1.6 15.9 ± 1.3 .074 .004 (.09)
TAPSE (mm) .71 ± .0.04 .82 ± .11 .42 ± .06 .75 ± .12 .008 <.001 (.11)
RV S’ (mm/s) 22.5 ± 5.1 22.0 ± 5.6 20.4 ± 4.9 23.4 ± 3.7 .56 .004 (.078)
RV E’ (mm/s) 31.2 ± 8.3 29.9 ± 6.3 29.15 ± 8.0 31.8 ± 5.1 .51 .007 (.78)
RV IVRT’/RR (%) 8.5 ± 2.3 4.5 ± 1.7 9.5 ± 2.0 6.3 ± 1.6 .058 <.001 (.43)
RV lateral wall thickness (mm) 1.53 ± .40 1.61 ± .34 1.57 ± .35 1.76 ± .31 .50 .33 (.74)
  1. Echocardiography performed on mice exposed to cigarette smoke or fresh air and subsequently put through exercise training or kept sedentary. HR: heart rate; FS: fractional shortening for left ventricle (LV); LV S’: LV Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) systolic velocity; LV E’: LV DTI early diastolic velocity; IVRT: isovolumic relaxation time; TAPSE: tricuspid annular systolic excursion; RV S’: right ventricle (RV) DTI systolic velocity; RV E’: RV DTI early systolic velocity; RV IVRT’/RR: isovolumic relaxation time derived from RV DTI. F1-column: p-value for main effect of smoke exposure; F2-column: p-value for main effect of exercise; I-column: p-values for interaction term between smoke exposure and exercise. 2-way ANOVA, interaction term removed if not significant (p-value for interaction term then presented in parenthesis). Data presented as mean ± SD.