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Table 3 Changes in functional parameters, blood cells and markers of inflammation, induced sputum cells, EBC LTB 4 and GRO-α during an acute exacerbation phase and a stable phase of COPD

From: Increased of exhaled breath condensate neutrophil chemotaxis in acute exacerbation of COPD

  Outpatients (n = 16) Hospitalized patients (n = 11)
  Exacerbated phase Stable phase Exacerbated phase Stable phase
Functional parameters     
FEV1, % predicted 48.1 ± 2.9 56.8 ± 3.4**** 36.1 ± 4.6 42.7 ± 5.9*
FEV1/FVC % 47.0 ± 3.3 49.0 ± 3.5 47.9 ± 2.6 49.7 ± 2.6
Blood     
Leukocytes (per mL) 8825 (5040) 7045 (1862)* 12660 (5560) 8960 (4550)**
Neutrophils (per mL) 6670 (5093) 4545 (2668)* 9090 (5485) 5890 (3720)**
Neutrophils, % 76.0 (8.4) 64.4 (23.0)**** 85.3 (14.8) 68.5 (11.0)**
Lymphocytes, % 17.0 (10.1) 23.6 (20.5)* 9.6 (8.5) 18.2 (5.7)*
CRP (mg/L) 21.4 (83.5) 1.8 (2.0)*** 8.0 (52.4) 5.5 (6.0)*
Fibrinogen (g/L) 5.5 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.3*** 4.7 ± 0.4 4.4 ± 0.4
Induced sputum     
Squamous epithelial cells (%) 0.0 (2.0) 6.5 (9.5) 10.0 (1.0) 23.0 (4.0)
Total non squamous cell count (x 106 cells/g sputum) 13.1 (25.7) 7.2 (8.8) 5.4 (16.3) 3.7 (6.2)*
Neutrophils, % 91.0 (7.6) 81.1 (28.9)** 82.0 (24.6) 80.0 (19.5)
Neutrophils count(x103/g sputum) 11139.0 (24009.0) 4688.0 (6655.0)* 2107.4 (15597.0) 2332.8 (4304.0)
Macrophages, % 4.5 (7.1) 7.8 (14.0) 10.0 (11) 8.5 (9)
Eosinophils, % 0.4 (0.6) 1.0 (1.7) 0.5 (3.9) 1.0 (9.8)
Lymphocytes, % 1.0 (1.0) 2.0 (5.2) 1.5 (2.5) 1.5 (1.9)
Exhaled breath condensate     
LTB4 pg/mL 66.0 (47) 47.0 (29.0)** 67.0 (36.0) 47.0 (30.0)
GRO alpha pg/mL 56.1 (49.0) 31.0 (29.0)** 45.0 (46.0) 15.1 (17.0)*
  1. Functional data are expressed as means ± SD. Blood, sputum and EBC data are expressed as medians (IQR). *p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.005, **** p < 0.001.